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286 processor
286 processor or 80286 processor, a significant enhancements over the 8086/8088 line, was introduced by Intel in 1982. The 286 processor mainly introduced protected mode and the ability to address up to 16 megabytes of memory. The 286 processor was used in the IBM XT range.
2D Computer Graphics
2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images based on two-dimensional models. The word may stand for the branch of computer science that comprises such techniques, or for the models themselves. 2D computer graphics are mainly used in applications that were originally developed upon traditional printing and drawing technologies, such as typography, cartography, technical drawing, advertising, etc.
2GL: Second Generation Language
Second generation language (2GL), also known as second-generation programming language, usually refers to some form of assembly language. Unlike first-generation programming languages, the code can be read and written fairly easily by a human, but it must be converted into a machine readable form in order to run on a computer. The conversion process is simply a mapping of the assembly language code into binary machine code (the first-generation language). The language is specific to and dependent on a particular processor family and environment. Since it is the native language of a processor it has significant speed advantages, but it requires more programming efforts and is difficult to use effectively for large( or wide) applications.
In computer architecture, 32-bit describes integers, memory addresses or other data units that are at most 32 bits (4 octets or 4 bytes) wide, or to describe CPU and ALU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 32-bit is also a term given to a generation of computers, during which time 32-bit processors were the norm. The range of integer values that can be stored in 32 bits is 0 through 4294967295, or -2147483648 through 2147483647 using two's complement encoding. Hence, a processor with 32-bit memory addresses can directly access 4 GiB of byte-addressable memory.
386 processor
386 processor (or 80386 processor) was introduced in 1985 by Intel, which was the first processor to use 32 bit addressing, allowing it to utilise up to 4 Gigabytes of memory.The 386 processor was manufactured in many different versions and ran at speeds from 16 Mhz through to 40 Mhz.
386SX processor
386SX is a cut down version of the 386 processor which had a lower memory throughput, as it could only access 16 megabytes of memory.
4-way server
A 4-way server provides better performance, scalability and higher availability (fault tolerant) by supporting four CPUs processors. Each CPUs can conduct individual processes simultaneously. They can work like 4 individual computers, or work as a group to process a large job together, or simply work as the back-up for each other to increase fault tolerance.
486 processor
The 486 processor (or 80486 processor) family was introduced in 1989 by Intel. Lack of significant enhancements over than the 386, it had more transistors and could run at higher clock speeds. The 486 processor had two versions: 486 SX with no math co-processor and the standard 486 DX versions. The 486 initially ran at clock speeds of 25 MHz (SX only) and 33 MHz. The more advanced versions of 486 such as 486 DX-2 can run at speeds of 50, 66 and 75 MHz, and then 486 DX-4 can run up to 100 MHz.
In computer architecture, 64-bit describes integers, memory addresses or other data units that are, at most, 64 bits (8 octets or 8 bytes) wide, or describes CPU and ALU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. As of 2004, 64-bit CPUs are common in servers, and have recently been introduced to the (previously 32-bit) mainstream personal computer arena in the form of the AMD64, EM64T, and PowerPC 970 (or "G5") processor architectures
8-way server
A 8-way server includes 8 CPUs in one computer which provides better performance, scalability and higher availability (fault tolerant). Each CPUs can conduct individual processes simultaneously. They can work like 8 individual computers, or work as a group to process a large job together, or simply work as the back-up for each other to increase fault tolerance.
8086, 8088 processors
The 8086 and 8088 processors were developed by Intel in 1979, which was selected by IBM in 1981 as the CPU for its first commercial personal computer. The Intel 8086/8088 range of processors were based upon Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) which allows the number of bytes per instruction to vary according to the instruction being processed. The architechture pioneered by Intel has become known as "x86" due to the early naming system where processors were called 8086, 80186 (not used in PC's), 80286, 80386, and 80486.
A/D Converter: Analog/Digital Converter
Analog/Digital Converter (A/D converter or ADC), a hardware device, can read an analog signal (such as voltage) and converts the resulting percentage to a digital value after comparing it to a reference signal. A D/A Converter is just performing the reverse function.
Abrasive is any of a number of hard materials, such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and diamond, that are powdered and carefully graded according to particle size, and used to shape and/or finish optical elements, including the end-faces of optical fibers and connectors. For finishing the end-faces of optical fiber connectors, abrasive particles are adhered to a substrate of plastic film, in a fashion after that of sandpaper. The film is, in turn, supported by a hard, flat plate. The connector is supported by a fixture that holds it securely in the proper position for finishing. The grinding motion may be performed manually or by a machine
Accelerator Board
Accelerator board, also known as accelerator card, is a type of expansion board that makes a computer faster by adding or replacing a faster CPU or FPU. Most modern computers are designed to have a socket in the motherboard that can easiely remove the CPU and replace it with a faster model, without replacing the entire motherboard.
ACCESS.bus (or A.b) is a peripheral-interconnect computer bus developed by Philips in the early 1990s. It is similar in purpose to USB, in that it allows low-speed devices to be added or removed from a computer on the fly. While it was in use earlier than USB, it never became popular, largely due to considerably less corporate backing in the industry. A.b is a physical layer definition that describes the physical cabling and connectors used in the network. The higher layers, namely the signaling and protocol issues, are already defined to be the same as Philips' I²C bus.
ACCU: Association of C and C++ Users
Association of C and C++ Users (ACCU) is a worldwide association of people who are interested in C, C++, and related programming languages.
Acoustic Coupler
The acoustic coupler is a hardware device that allows a computer to connect to other computers. Users transmit data over phone lines commonly using a modem to connect to other computers or networks instead of the acoustic coupler because of the dependability, speeds and ease of use.
ACR: Advanced Communications Riser
Advanced Communications Riser (ACR) is a form factor and technical specification for PC motherboard expansion slots. It is meant as a supplement to PCI slots and a replacement for AMR slots. The ACR specification provides a lower cost method to connect certain expansion cards to a computer, with an emphasis on audio and communications devices. sound cards and modems are the most common devices to use the specification.
Active Component
Active component is a device that adds intelligence in some way to the signal or data that passes through it, in contrast to passive components which simply permit signal passage without affecting the data in any manner.
Active Hub
Active Hub, also known as a repeater, is a multiported network device that amplifies LAN transmission signals, in addition to forwarding the signals. Contrast with a passive hub, which only forwards the signals to all ports.
Active Matrix Display
A type of flat-panel display technology based on a technology known as TFT (thin film transistor). It is brighter and may have better resolution than an older passive matrix display technologies.
ActiveMovie, a multimedia streaming technology developed by Microsoft,enables users to view multimedia content distributed over the Internet, an intranet, or CD-ROM. It is build into the Internet Explorer browser and supported by Windows operating systems.
Generally, an adapter or adaptor is a device used to match the physical or electrical characteristics of two different things so that a connection may be made between them. In the computer hardware context, many types of adaptors are required to have systems connected with each other. For example, video adapters enable the computer to support graphics monitors, and network adapters enable a computer to attach to a network. Adapters can be built into the main circuitry of a computer or they can be separate add-ons that come in the form of expansion boards.
ADB: Apple Desktop Bus
Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) is a type of communications pathway built into all pre-G4 versions of the Apple Macintosh computers. It is used to connect low-speed input devices such as the keyboard and mouse. A single ADB port can support as many as 16 simultaneous input devices.
Address Bus
Address bus is an internal channel from the CPU to memory across which the addresses of data are transmitted. The number of lines or wires in the address bus determines the amount of memory that can be directly addressed as each line carries one bit of the address. For example, if the address bus contains electrical lines, the processor can address up to 2**n unique locations. No actual data is carried on this bus, rather memory addresses, which control the location that data is either read from or written to, are sent here. The speed of the address bus is the same as the data bus it is matched to.
Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT)
Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT) is a form of magnetic tape and drive using AME developed by Sony for storing large amounts of data. AIT features high speed file access, long head and media life, the ALDC compression algorithm, and a MIC chip. There are a few types of AIT tapes: AIT-1, AIT-2, AIT-3, AIT-4 and S-AIT, each has different capacities and speeds.
AGP Pro is an extension to the Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) specification to provide additional electrical power to the graphics add-in cards in the advanced graphic workstation. The AGP Pro definition includes an extended connector, thermal envelope, mechanical specifications for cards, I/O brackets, and motherboard layout requirements.
AGP: Accelerated Graphics Port
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) developed by Intel based on PCI, is an interface specification for the throughput demands of 3-D graphics. Rather than using the PCI bus for graphics data, AGP introduces a dedicated point-to-point channel so that the graphics controller can directly access main memory. The AGP channel is 32 bits wide and runs at 66 MHz with a total bandwidth of 266 MBps. AGP also supports two optional faster modes, with throughputs of 533 MBps and 1.07 GBps. In addition, AGP allows 3-D textures to be stored in main memory rather than video memory.
AIDC: Automatic Identification and Data
Automatic Identification and Data Capture (or Collection) (AIDC) is a general term describing the process of capturing or collecting data via automatic means, for example, using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID), bar code scanning, smart cards, OCR or magnetic strips to collect data, and then storing that data in a microprocessor-controlled device, such as a computer.
Allocated memory
Allocated memory is the amount of RAM allocated to different programs and applications. Memory could be allocated statically when the program is installed with a fix amount or dynamically during run time when needed.
Alpha Processor
Alpha Processor is RISC processor developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (now part of HP) and used in their workstations and servers.
Alpha Test
Alpha test is the first formal test of a newly developed hardware or software product by internal people. The key objectives of the alpha test are functionality confirmation and bug identification. When the first round of bugs has been fixed, the product goes into beta test with actual users and customers.
Alpha version
Alpha version is an early version of a software or hardware product, which passed the Alpha test. Alpha version may not contain all of the features that are planned for the final release. Typically, software goes through two stages of testing before it is considered finished. The first stage, called alpha testing which is done by internal users. The second stage, called beta testing , generally involves a limited number of external users.
ALU: Arithmetic Logic Unit
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) performs all arithmetic computations, such as addition and multiplication, and all comparison operations. The ALU is a basic component of the CPU (central processing unit).
AMBA: Advanced Microcontroller Bus
Architecture Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA) was introduced in 1996 and is widely used as the on-chip bus for Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) processors. AMBA is designed for use in System-on-a-chip (SoC) systems. The important aspect of a SoC is not which components or blocks it houses, but how they are implemented. AMBA is a solution for the blocks to interface with each other.
The AMD64, also known as AMD x86-64 or x64, is a 64 bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. The AMD64 Instruction set is currently used in AMD's Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X2, Turion 64, Opteron and later Sempron processors. AMD64 instruction set is a straightforward extension of the x86 architecture to 64 bits, motivated by the fact that the 4GB of memory directly addressable by a 32 bit CPU is no longer sufficient for all applications.
American Wire Gauge
American Wire Gauge is a standard method of denoting wire diameter, especially for nonferrous, electrically conducting wire.
Amplifier Repeater
An amplifier repeater is a device in wire or wireless network that will amplifer signal and forward them to the next distinations. It cannot distinguish between a data signal and noise and will amplify and forward both.
Analog Monitor
Analog monitor is a video monitor that accepts analog signals from the computer or antana. It may accept only a narrow range of display resolutions; for example, only VGA or VGA and Super VGA, or it may accept a wide range of signals including TV.The traditional type of display screen such as CRT that has been used for years in televisions and computers are all analog monitors.
Answer-Only Modem
Answer only modem is a type of modem that can receive messages but cannot send them.
Antistatic Mat
A antistatic mat absorbs static electricity which might otherwise damage electronic components. It is used while repairing a computer or adding expansion cards to prevent damage.
ANVM: Active Nonvolatile Memory
Active Nonvolatile Memory(ANVM) is a type of nonvolatile memory which can retain their contents when power is turned off. ANVM contains the software currently used by the network element.
Array Processor
Array processor, also called a vector processor, is a microprocessor or computer that is capable of performing simultaneous computations on elements of an array of data in some number of dimensions. Common uses of such processor include analysis of fluid dynamics and rotation of 3D objects as well as data retrieval, in which elements in a database are scanned simultaneously that executes one instruction at a time but on an array or table of data at the same time rather than on single data elements.
Arrow Keys
Most computer keyboards contain four arrow keys for moving the cursor or insertion point right, left, up, or down. When combined with the Shift, Function, Control, or Alt keys on the keyboard of the PC, the arrow keys can have perform different functions.
Artificial brain
Artificial brain is the research to develop hardware that has cognitive abilities similar to the human brain. Very different approaches have been popularly as termed artificial brains by researchers or the popular press. Some approaches include artificial neurons on a parallel platform.
ASE: Amplified Spontaneous Emission
Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) is a type of light noise produced by spontaneous emission when a laser gain medium is pumped to produce a population inversion.. ASE is added to an optical signal when it is amplified. This noise (or ASE) accumulates and builds in optical spans that have multiple optical amplifiers between regenerators. Feedback of the ASE by the laser's optical cavity may produce laser operation if the lasing threshold is reached. Excess ASE is an unwanted effect in lasers, since it disipates some of the laser's power. In optical amplifiers, ASE limits the achievable gain of the amplifier and increases its noise level.
ASIC: Application-Specific Integrated Ci
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is an integrated circuit custom-designed to perform a specific set of functions. An ASIC-based device typically has better performance and lower cost over a similar design with standard chips. ASICs are commonly used in high-speed switches and routers. A typical device designed using standard chips typically has many individual components, and runs many functions in software. A device/system based on ASIC can consolidate the function of all of those chips, and even the software, onto a single chip.
Aspect Ratio
In computer graphics, the ratio of the horizontal and vertical sizes is called aspect ratio.
ASPI: Advanced SCSI Programming Interfac
Advanced SCSI Programming Interface (ASPI) is a standard SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) software interface that acts as a communication link between a host adapter board and SCSI device drivers. ASPI enables host adapters and device drivers to share a single SCSI hardware interface.
Associative Memory
Associative memory is not on a traditional Von Neumann computing architecture because each address in an associative memory has a small amount of computing power. This allows such operations as "Do any of you memory locations contain this data?" to execute in just a few cycles rather than the approach of searching through all memory locations for the data that is necessary with traditional architectures. Content addressable memory (CAM) is a type of Associative Memory.
Associative Storage
Associative Storage is a storage device or process that the storage locations are identified by their contents, or by a part of their contents, rather than by their names or positions. This is also known as content-addressable storage.
AT Bus
AT bus, also known as ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) bus, is a 16-bit bus started with the IBM-AT (Advanced Technology) systems. It is still the standard interface for most PC expansion cards. The bus is the collection of wires and electronic components that connect all device controllers and add-in cards. The controllers are the components that attach to peripheral devices. The bus, therefore, is the main highway for all data moving in and out of the computer.
AT Keyboard
AT key board is an 84-key keyboard introduced with the PC /AT (Advanced Technology) by IBM. It was later replaced with the 101-key Enhanced Keyboard.
ATA: Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA
Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA), also known as AT attachment or AT attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI), is a standard interface for connecting storage devices such as hard disks and CD-ROM drives inside personal computers. Many terms and synonyms for ATA exist, including abbreviations such as IDE, ATAPI, and UDMA. ATA standards only allow cable lengths up to 18 inches (up to 450 mm) although cables up to 36 inches (900 mm) can be readily purchased, so the technology normally appears as an internal computer storage interface. It provides the most common and the least expensive interface for this application.
ATAPI: AT Attachment Packet Interface
AT attachment or AT attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI), also known as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA), is a standard interface for connecting storage devices such as hard disks and CD-ROM drives inside personal computers. Many terms and synonyms for ATA exist, including abbreviations such as IDE, ATAPI, and UDMA. ATA standards only allow cable lengths up to 18 inches (up to 450 mm) although cables up to 36 inches (900 mm) can be readily purchased, so the technology normally appears as an internal computer storage interface. It provides the most common and the least expensive interface for this application.
Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intel's competing processors for a significant period of time. AMD has continued the Athlon name with the Athlon 64, an eighth-generation processor featuring AMD64 technology.
AUI: Attachment Unit Interface
An Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) is a 15 pin connection that provides a path between a node's Ethernet interface and the Medium Attachment Unit, sometimes known as a transceiver. It is the part of the IEEE Ethernet standard located between the MAC and the MAU. An AUI cable may be up to 50 metres long, although frequently the cable is omitted altogether and the MAU and MAC are directly attached to one another.
AUX: Auxiliary devices
Auxiliary devices (AUX) are peripheral devices to support computers to do its job such as printers, scanners, and modems.
AVI: Audio Video Interleave
Audio Video Interleave (AVI) is the file format for Microsoft's Video for Windows standard.
Backbone is the main network that connects nodes. The term is often refered as the main network connections composing the Internet.
Backlighting is a technique used to make flat-panel displays easier to read. The back layer of the display is illuminated so that the foreground appears sharper in contrast with the background.
Backplane is the physical interface module in many network devices such as a route or a switch that connects between an interface processor or card and the data buses and the power distribution buses inside a chassis.
Backside Bus
Backside bus connects the CPU to a Level 2 cache while the frontside bus connects the CPU to the main memory.
Backspace Key
A backspace key on a keyboard moves the cursor or insertion point backward one character space. The Backspace key may also deletes the character to the left of the cursor or insertion point.
Backup Server
A backup server is a computer in a network designed to store copies of files from other servers or users' machines. It is generally has a very large disk. In case of something wrong such as files of users being lost, the files in the backup server can be loaded back to the original machine.
BEDO DRAM, alson known as Burst EDO DRAM, can process four memory addresses in one burst. BEDO DRAM can only stay synchronized with the CPU clock for short periods (bursts) with buses run under 66 MHz.
Beta test
Beta test is the computer system test prior to commercial release. Beta testing is the last stage of testing, and normally can involve sending the product to beta test sites outside the company for real-world exposure or offering the product for a free trial download over the Internet. Beta testing is often preceded by a round of testing called alpha testing.
Beta version
A beta version, also known as beta release, usually represents the first version of a computer hardware or software that implements all features in the initial requirements specification. It is likely to be unstable but useful for internal demonstrations and previews to select customers, but not yet ready for release. Some developers refer to this stage as a preview, as a technical preview (TP) or as an early access.
BGA: Ball Grid Array
Ball Grid Array (BGA) is a surface-mount integrated circuit package. The pins of BGA are replaced with balls of solder to allow more contact points between the die and the circuit board.
BIOS: Basic Input/Output System
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) is the built-in software that determines how computers control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions.
BJT: Bipolar Junction Transistor
The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was the first type of transistor to be commercially mass-produced. Bipolar transistors are so named because the main conduction channel uses both electrons and holes to carry the main electric current. Two p-n junctions exist inside the BJT, colector-base junction and base-emitter junction. When the BJT is not powered, the junctions are in unbiased thermal equilibrium with a depletion region formed at each junction.
Bond-Out Processor
Bond-out processors has some of the internal signals brought out to external pins, which is designed to be used within an in-circuit emulator and are not typically used in any other kind of system.
Boot programmable read-only memory (Boot PROM) is a chip mounted on a printed circuit board used to provide executable boot instructions to a computer device.
Bootflash is a separate Flash memory device used primarily to store the boot helper image and system configuration information.
In computer networking, a bridge is a layer-2 device that divides a network into separate collision domains or segments while keeping the broadcast and sharing feature within the same domain/segment. The bridge keeps a table of all segments and forward frames properly to make sure communication within or across segments are conducted smoothly.
Brouter is nickname of a device that functions as both a router and a bridge. A brouter routes specific types of packets, such as TCP/IP packets to specific desitination. Any other packets it receives are simply forwarded to other network(s) connected to the device (this is the bridge function).
Bubble-Jet Printer
Buble-jet printer, developed by Canon, is a type of ink-jet printer. Bubble-jet printers use special heating elements to prepare the ink whereas other ink-jet printers uses piezoelectric crystals.
Buffer is a temporary storage area in computer memory, which acts as a holding area allowing the CPU to manipulate data before transferring it to a device. Because the processes of reading and writing data to a disk are relatively slow, many programs process data in a buffer and then copy the buffer to a disk when it is necessary.
Burst Mode
Burst mode is a fast data transmission mode. There are a number of ways to implement burst modes. In a data bus, a burst mode is usually implemented by allowing a device to seize control of the bus and not permitting other devices to interrupt. In RAM and disk cache, burst modes are implemented by automatically fetching the next memory contents before they are requested.
Bus is a bundle of wires for data transmition from one part of a computer to another. In a personal computer, for example, bus connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and main memory and it is called internal bus.
Bus Mastering
Bus mastering is a feature that enables a controller connected to the bus to communicate directly with other devices on the bus without going through the CPU. Most modern bus architectures, including PCI, support bus mastering because it improves performance.
Bus Mouse
Bus mouse connects to a computer via an expansion board. Bus mouse does not use up the serial port. Bus mice are now obsolete.
C-RIMM: Continuity-RIMM
Continuity-RIMM (C-RIMM) is a special module used to fill any unused RIMM slots (because there cannot be any unused RIMM slots on a motherboard). It is basically a RIMM module without any memory chips.
Cable is the physical transmission medium of a group of metallic conductors or optical fibers that are bound together and wrapped in a protective cover, and insulation between individual conductors/fibers and for the entire group.
Cable Modem
Cable modem provides access of computers to network over cable TV lines. Most cable modems supply a 10 Mbps Ethernet connection for the home LAN. Cable modem achieve higher access speed to the World Wide Web than phone lines using dial up modem or even ADSL modem. The actual performance of a cable modem Internet connection can vary depending on the utilization of the shared cable line in that neighborhood, but typical data rates range from 300 Kbps to 1500 Kbps.

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