There are currently 85 names in this directory
0G refers to pre-cellular mobile telephony technology. These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks. Typically, the transceiver (transmitter-receiver) is mounted in the vehicle trunk and attached to the "head" (dial, display, and handset) mounted near the driver seat
16ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM), one of the forms of QAM, is a modulation scheme. In QAM, the constellation points are usually arranged in a square grid with equal vertical and horizontal spacing, although other configurations are possible. Since in digital telecommunications the data is usually binary, the number of points in the grid is usually a power of 2 (2,4,8...). Since QAM is usually square, the most common forms of QAM are 16-QAM, 64-QAM, 128-QAM and 256-QAM. By moving to a higher-order constellation, it is possible to transmit more bits per symbol. However, if the mean energy of the constellation is to remain the same (by way of making a fair comparison), the points must be closer together and are thus more susceptible to noise and other corruption; this results in a higher bit-error rate and so higher-order QAM can deliver more data less reliably than lower-order QAM.
1G: First Generation wireless technology
First Generation wireless technology (1G) is the original analog, voice-only cellular telephone standard, developed in the 1980s. One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), used in Nordic countries, Eastern Europe and Russia. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the United States, TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom, JTAGS in Japan, C-Netz in West Germany, Radiocom 2000 in France, and RTMI in Italy. Analog cellular service is being phased out in most places worldwide.
1xEV-DO, also known as Evolution Data Optimized (EV-DO), is a third-generation (3G) cellular data technology for GPRS-enabled cellular phones, networks and handheld devices. Its bandwidth is up to 3.1Mbps.
1xEV-DV, also known as Evolution Data/Voice (EV-DV), is a third-generation (3G) cellular data technology for GPRS-enabled cellular phones, networks and handheld devices. Its bandwidth is up to 3.1Mbps.
1xRTT is a cellular data technology for CDMA networks. RTT stands for Radio Transmission Technology. 1xRTT has a theoretical maximum of 144 Kbps of bandwidth, but achieves a practical throughput of only 50 to 70 Kbps in the real world.
2.5G refers to the bridging technologies between second (2G) and third generation (3G) wireless communications. It is a digital communication allowing e-mail and simple Web browsing, in addition to voice. The key technologies include GPRS and WiDEN.
2G: Second Generation Wireless Technolog
2G stands for the second generation of mobile wireless communication technology, which uses the digital technologies for the mobile communication. 2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based (GSM) and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. It allows slow data communications, but its primary focus is voice.
3-Way Calling is a feature in voice communications which allows you to conduct a conference call among three parties.
The 3.5G generally refers to the technologies beyond the well defined 3G wireless/mobile technologies. Currently, HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) is considered the primary 3.5G technology which is a software upgrade of WCDMA and provides high-speed broadband wireless access.
3G: Third Generation Wireless Technology
3G stands for the third generation of wireless communication technologies, which support broadband voice, data and multi-media communications over wireless networks. Main 3G standards include CDMA2000, WCDMA, UMTS, etc.
3GPP Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE), also known as Evolved-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA or EUTRA) or UMTS Long Term Evolution, is specified in the 3GPP release 8. It is a key 3G technology to ensure the competitiveness of UMTS and provide a high-data-rate, low-latency and packet-optimized system. Besides peak data rates of 100 Mbps in downlink and 50 Mbps in uplink, a significant increase in spectrum efficiency and capacity as well as a significant latency reduction are planned. Commercial aspects like costs for installing and operating the network form also part of the requirements.
3GPP: The 3rd Generation Partnership Pro
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration agreement that was established in December, 1998. It's a co-operation between ETSI (Europe), ARIB/TTC (Japan), CCSA (China), ATIS (North America) and TTA (South Korea). The scope of 3GPP was to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT-2000 project. 3GPP specifications are based on the evolved GSM specifications, now generally known as the UMTS system.
3GPP2: The 3rd Generation Partnership Pr
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is a collaboration agreement that was established in December, 1998. It's a co-operation between ARIB/TTC (Japan), CCSA (China), TIA (North America) and TTA (South Korea). The scope of 3GPP2 is to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT-2000 project. In practice, 3GPP2 is the standardization group for CDMA2000, the set of 3G standards based on earlier 2G CDMA technology.
3GPS: 3G Service Provider
3GPS (3G Service Provider) is the mobile operator that has 3G license to provide 3G services to customers
3GSM: Third generation GSM network
Third generation GSM (3GSM) is the combination of the 3G nature of the technology and the GSM standard. The core technology that enables the 3GSM is called Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).
4G: Fourth generation of wireless commun
4G is the name for the next generation of technology for high-speed wireless communications that is currently in research and development stage. 4G will be designed for new data services and interactive TV through mobile network.
6lowpan: IPv6 over Low power Wireless Pe
6lowpan is the IETF working group to define the standards of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. 6lowpan is the paragon that is aimed at allowing IPv6 packets to be sent to and received from PANs, more specifically over IEEE802.15.4 (ZigBee) -standard based networks. Likewise, IEEE802.15.4/ZigBee devices provide sensing communication-ability in the wireless domain.
802.11 is a group of wireless specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless local area network (WLAN) communications. It details a wireless interface between devices to manage packet traffic to avoid collisions. Some common specifications include the following: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, etc.
8802.11a is an extension to IEEE 802.11 that applies to wireless LANs and provides up to 54 Mbps in the 5GHz band. 802.11a uses an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme rather than FHSS or DSSS. 802.11a, actually newer than 802.11b, offers significantly more radio channels than the 802.11b and has a shorter range than 802.11g. It isn't compatible with 802.11b.
802.11b, also referred to as 802.11 High Rate or Wi-Fi, is an extension to IEEE 802.11 that applies to wireless LANS and provides 11 Mbps transmission (with a fallback to 5.5, 2 and 1 Mbps) in the 2.4 GHz band. 802.11b uses only DSSS. 802.11b was a ratification to the original 802.11 standard, allowing wireless functionality comparable to Ethernet.
802.11e, an IEEE standard, is the quality-of-service specification over a LAN, in particular, the 802.11 WiFi standard. The standard is considered of critical importance for delay-sensitive applications, such as Voice-over-Wireless IP and Streaming Multimedia. The protocol enhances the IEEE 802.11 Media Access Control (MAC) layer.
802.11g is an extension to IEEE 802.11 which offers wireless transmission over relatively short distances at 20 ¨C 54 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band. The 802.11g also uses the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme. 802.11g is compatible with older 802.11b.
802.11i, also called Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA 2), is the standard for WLAN security. WPA 2 supports the 128-bit-and-above Advanced Encryption Standard, along with 802.1x authentication and key management features. It also uses TKIP (Temporal Kye Integrity Protocol) which rotates key periodically to improve WLAN security.
802.11j is the IEEE standard to the 802.11 family of standards for wireless local area networks (WLANs) for 4.9 GHz - 5 GHz frequency use of WLAN systems in Japan.
The 802.11k is the Radio Resource Management standard to provide measurement information for access points and switches to make wireless LANs run more efficiently. It may, for example, better distribute traffic loads across access points or allow dynamic adjustments of transmission power to minimize interference.
802.11n is the IEEE Standard for WLAN enhancements for higher throughput designed to raise effective WLAN throughput to more than 100Mbit/sec. and to cover a range up to 400 meters. IEEE 802.11n technology is also known as Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO).
The 802.11r is the Fast Roaming standard to address maintaining connectivity as a user moves from one access point to another. This is especially important in applications that need low latency and high quality-of-service.
802.11s standard is designed to deal with mesh networking in wireless communication. It is predicted to be ratified in mid-2008.
802.11x refers to a group of evolving wireless local area network (WLAN) standards that are elements of the IEEE 802.11 family of specifications. 802.11x should not be mistaken for any one of its elements because there is no single 802.11x standard. The 802.11 family currently includes six over-the-air modulation techniques that all use the same protocol. The most popular (and prolific) techniques are those defined by the b, a, and g amendments to the original standard; security was originally included and was later enhanced via the 802.11i amendment. 802.11n is another new modulation technique. Other standards in the family (c¨Cf, h, j) are service enhancements and extensions or corrections to previous specifications. 802.11b was the first widely accepted wireless networking standard, followed by 802.11a and 802.11g.
802.15 is a group of IEEE standards that specifies communications for wireless personal area networks (WPAN) based on the Bluetooth tehnologies. The current technologies included in the IEEE 802.15 family are: 802.15.1 (Bluetooth), 802.15.2 (UWB) and 802.15.4 (ZigBee).
802.15.1 is an IEEE wireless technology standard based on the Bluetooth technology. It is used for short range network monitoring and control applications, which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN).
802.15.3 is an IEEE wireless technology standard that is used for short range network monitoring and control applications, which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN). 802.15.3 is also called UWB.
802.15.4 is an IEEE wireless technology standard that is used for short range network monitoring and control applications, which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN). 802.15.4 is also called Zigbee.
The IEEE 802.16 refers to a group of standards that defines wireless communications between a subscriber site and a core network such as the public telephone network (PSTN) and the Internet. It is called Wireless MAN technology, which is also branded as WiMAX. This wireless broadband access standard provides the missing link for the "last mile" connection in metropolitan area networks where DSL, Cable and other broadband access methods are not available or too expensive.
802.16-2004, also known as 802.16d, is an IEEE standard for the fixed wireless broadband (WiMax). IEEE 802.16-2004 product profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system profile. The Fixed WiMAX 802.16-2004 standard supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) services -- the latter of which delivers full duplex transmissions on the same signal if desired. Mobile WiMAX will do the same.
802.16-2005, also known as 802.16e, is an IEEE standard addressing mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax). IEEE 802.16-2005 is sometimes called ¡°Mobile WiMAX¡±, after the WiMAX forum for interoperability. 802.16-2005, based on an existing WiMax standard 802.16a, adds WiMax mobility in the 2-to-6GHz-licensed bands.
802.16a is an IEEE wireless communications specification for metropolitan area networks (MANs) as part of a set of standards known as 802.16 or WiMAX. The 802.16a standard was developed for wireless MANs operating between 2 GHz and 11 GHz at data speeds of up to 75 megabits per second (Mbps). 802.16a has been replaced by later standards in the family 802.16d (802.16-2004) and 802.16e (802.16-2005).
802.16d, also known as 802.16-2004, is an IEEE standard for the fixed wireless broadband (WiMax). IEEE 802.16d product profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system profile. The Fixed WiMAX 802.16-2004 standard supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) services -- the latter of which delivers full duplex transmission on the same signal if desired.
802.16e, also known as 802.16-2005, is an IEEE standard addressing mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax). IEEE 802.16e is sometimes called ¡°Mobile WiMAX¡±, after the WiMAX forum for interoperability. 802.16e, based on an existing WiMax standard 802.16a, adds WiMax mobility in the 2-to-6 GHz-licensed bands. 802.16e allows for fixed wireless and mobile Non Line of Sight (NLOS) applications primarily by enhancing the OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access).
802.1x is an IEEE authentication specification that allows a client to connect to a wireless access point or wired switch but prevents the client from gaining access to the Internet until it provides credentials, like a user name and password, that are verified by a separate server. In 802.1X, there are three roles: the supplicant (client), authenticator (switch or access point), and authentication server.
802.20 is an IEEE standard of Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) by specifying new mobile air interfaces for wireless broadband. 802.20 is a competing standard with 802.16e. 802.16e, based on 802.16a, adds mobility in the 2-to-6 GHz-licensed bands, while 802.20, a brand new standard, aims for operation in licensed bands below 3.5GHz and with a peak data rate of over 1 Mbit/s.
802.22 is an IEEE standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN). IEEE 802.22 specifies a cognitive air interface for fixed, point-to-multipoint, wireless regional area networks that operate on unused channels in the VHF/UHF TV bands between 54 and 862 MHz. Signals at these frequencies can propagate 40 km or more from a well-sited base station, depending on terrain.
In the U.S. cellular service industry, A-Band cellular is the alternative carrier to the regional Bell operating company's cellular subsidiary
A-key is a secret number issued to a cellular phone that is used in conjunction with a subscriber's shared secret data information for authentication
A-MIMO: Adaptive Multiple Input Multiple
Adaptive Multiple Input Multiple Output (A-MIMO or Adaptive MIMO) is a scheme to enhance the MIMO technology by employing adaptive coding and modulation techniques for the purpose of improving channel capacity, diversity, and robustness of wireless communications. In an adaptive MIMO system, the system parameters are jointly optimized to adapt to the changing channel conditions through link adaptation techniques that can track the time-varying characteristics of the wireless channel. The goal is to maximize the resources available in multiple antenna channels by using optimal schemes at all times.
A2DP: Advanced Audio Distribution Profil
The Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP) in Bluetooth specifies the protocols and procedures that define the distribution of high quality audio content, in either mono or stereo on Asynchronous Connectionless Link (ACL) channels.
AAS: Adaptive Antenna System
Adaptive Antenna System (AAS), also called Advanced Antenna System, is a technology to enable the network operators to increase the wireless network capacity. In addition, adaptive antenna systems offer the potential of increased spectrum efficiency, extended range of coverage and higher rate of frequency reuse. Adaptive antenna systems consist of multiple antenna elements at the transmitting and/or receiving side of the communication link, whose signals are processed adaptively in order to exploit the spatial dimension of the mobile radio channel. Depending on whether the processing is performed at the transmitter, receiver, or both ends of the communication link, the adaptive antenna technique is defined as multiple-input single-output (MISO), single-input multiple-output (SIMO), or multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO).
Absolute Grant (AG), a term used in the mobile wireless channel definition, means the absolute value of the power offset permitted for the power usage.
Absorption Spectrum is a diagram which shows the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation absorbed by a material. The material could be a gas, a solute or a solid. An absorption spectrum is, in a sense, the inverse of an emission spectrum.
AC: Authentication Center (or AUC)
The Authentication Centre (AC or AUC) is a function to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core network (typically when the phone is powered on). Once the authentication is successful, the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM and services described above. An encryption key is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications (voice, SMS, etc.) between the mobile phone and the GSM core network.
ACCH: Associated Control Channel
Associated Control Channel(ACCH) is the GSM signalling channels associated with a user’s traffic channel or dedicated signalling channel. Two ACCH are defined for GSM Circuit Switched operation. These are SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel) and FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel). In GPRS packet operation, an ACCH is allocated in conjunction with a PDTCH (Packet Data Traffic Channel) and is termed as PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel).
ACELP: Algebraic Code Excited Linear Pre
Algebraic Code Excited Linear Predictive (ACELP) is an algebraic technique used to populate codebooks for CELP speech coders. This technique results in more efficient codebook search algorithms.
ACIR: Adjacent Channel Interference Rati
Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio (ACIR) is the ratio of wanted power to the interference power from the adjacent channels.
ACLR: Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) is a measure of transmitter performance for WCDMA. It is defined as the ratio of the transmitted power to the power measured after a receiver filter in the adjacent RF channel. This is what was formerly called Adjacent Channel Power Ratio. ACLR is specified in the 3GPP WCDMA standard.
ACPR: Adjacent Channel Power Ratio
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) is a measurement of the amount of interference, or power, in the adjacent frequency channel. ACPR is usually defined as the ratio of the average power in the adjacent frequency channel (or offset) to the average power in the transmitted frequency channel. It is a critical measurement for CDMA transmitters and their components. It describes the amount of distortion generated due to nonlinearities in RF components. The ACPR measurement is not part of the cdmaOne standard.
ACS: Adjacent Channel Selectivity
Adjacent Channel Selectivity (ACS) is a measurement of a receiver's ability to process a desired signal while rejecting a strong signal in an adjacent frequency channel. ACS is defined as the ratio of the receiver filter attenuation on the assigned channel frequency to the receiver filter attenuation on the adjacent channel frequency.
ACTS: Advanced Communications Technology
Advanced Communications Technology and Services (ACTS) is an organization in Europe spearheading the development of 3G technologies in Europe. ACTS succeeded RACE and is focusing on wideband multiple access techniques.
Ad hoc, also known as Ad hoc mode, refers to a short-term wireless network framework created between two or more wireless network adapters without going through an access point. In other words, an Ad hoc network allows computers to "talk" (send data) directly to and from one another. Ad hoc networks are handy for quickly trading files when you have no other way of connecting two or more computers. For an ad hoc network to work, each computer on the network needs a wireless network card installed, and you must set your wireless network cards (installed in each computer on the network) to Ad Hoc mode.
Ad hoc mode
Ad hoc mode refers to a wireless network in which devices can communicate directly with one another without using an AP or a connection to a regular network.
Ad hoc network
Ad hoc network refers to a short-term wireless network framework created between two or more wireless network adapters without going through an access point. Ad hoc networks are handy for quickly trading files when you have no other way of connecting two or more computers.
Adaptive array antennas
Adaptive array antenna is a type of advanced smart antenna technology that continually monitors a received signal and dynamically adapts signal patterns to optimize wireless system performance. The arrays use signal processing algorithms to adapt to user movement, changes in the radio-frequency environment and multi-path and co-channel interference.
Adaptive Equalizer is a channel equalizer whose parameters are updated automatically and adaptively during the transmission of data. These equalizers are commonly used in fading channels to improve transmission performance.
Adaptive power control
Adaptive power control is a technique employed by wireless infrastructure systems that lowers the power of a signal in a cell site whenever the site detects that the user's phone is close to the source of the signal. This saves power in the phone, and thus saving battery life too.
ADC: Analog-to-Digital Converter
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC, A/D or A to D) is an electronic device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). ADC can uniquely represents all analog input values within a specified total input range by a limited number of digital output codes.
Adjacent Channel is a channel or frequency that is directly above or below a specific channel or frequency. First-adjacent is immediately next to another channel, and second-adjacent is two channels away, and so forth. Information on adjacent channels is used in keeping stations from interfering with one another.
Adjacent channel interference
Adjacent channel interference refers to signal impairment to one frequency due to presence of another signal on a nearby frequency.
ADPCM: Adaptive Differential Pulse Code
Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation(ADPCM) is the process by which analog voice samples are encoded into high-quality digital signals. The first ADPCM standardized by the CCITT is G.721 for 32 kbps. Later came the standards G.726 and G.727 for 40, 32, 24 and 16 kbps. ADPCM is used to send sound on fiber-optic long-distance lines as well as to store sound along with text, images, and code on a CD-ROM.
AGC: Automatic Gain Control
Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is a system which holds the gain and, accordingly, the output of a receiver substantially constant in spite of input-signal amplitude fluctuations.
AGCH: Access Grant Channel
Access Grant Channel(AGCH) is a downlink control channel used in GSM systems to assign mobiles to a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) for initial assignment.
AGPS: Assisted Global Positioning System
Assisted Global Positioning System (AGPS) is a method used for determining mobile station (MS) location in terms of universal latitude and longitude coordinates. This capability has been mandated for wireless carriers in the United States by the Federal Communication Commission, so emergency callers can be easily located in times of crisis. AGPS implies that the mobile not only has GPS hardware and software but that the wireless network is providing the mobile with short assistance messages.
AIN: advanced intelligent network
Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) was Introduced by AT&T Network Systems in 1991 to enable service providers to define, test and introduce new multimedia messaging, PCS and cell routing.
In wireless communications, the air interface is the radio frequency (RF) part of the network that transmits signals between base stations and end-user equipment. The air interface is defined by specifications for a specific format such as GSM, cdma2000, GPRS, or W-CDMA.
AirPort is the Apple's marketing name for its 802.11b wireless networking technology. AirPort, based on IEEE 802.11b, is a local area wireless networking system from Apple Computer and certified as compatible with other 802.11b devices. A later family of products based on the IEEE 802.11g specification is known as AirPort Extreme, offering speeds of up to 54 megabits per second and interoperability with older products.
Airtime is the time elapsed between the start of a call achieved by connecting to your service provider's network and the termination of a call achieved by pressing the end button. Network connection time includes signals received prior to voice transmission, such as busy signals and ringing.
Aliasing is a type of signal distortion that occurs when sampling frequency of a signal is less than the Nyquist rate.
ALOHA is a packet-based radio access protocol developed by the University of Hawaii where every packet sent is acknowledged. Lack of an acknowledgement is an indication of a collision and results in a retransmission.
AM: Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude Modulation (AM) uses amplitude variation in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal, and is usually taken as DSB-LC for commercial broadcast transmissions and DSB-SC for multiplexed systems.
AMC: Adaptive Modulation and Coding
Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is an alternative link adaptation method in 3G mobile wireless communication. AMC provides the flexibility to match the modulation-coding scheme to the average channel conditions for each user. With AMC, the power of the transmitted signal is held constant over a frame interval, and the modulation and coding format is changed to match the current received signal quality or channel conditions.
Amplifier, or electronic amplifier, is commonly used in radio and television transmitters and receivers, high-fidelity ("hi-fi") stereo equipment, microcomputers and other electronic digital equipment, and guitar and other instrument amplifiers.
AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System ervic
Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Service is the analog mobile phone system standard, introduced in the Americas during the early 1980s. Though analog is no longer considered advanced at all, the relatively seamless cellular switching technology AMPS introduced was what made the original mobile radiotelephone practical, and was considered quite advanced at the time.
AMR: Advanced Multi Rate Codec
Advanced Multi Rate Codec (AMR) is a speech codec standardized by ETSI for GSM. The codec adapts its bit-rate allocation between speech and channel coding, thereby optimizing speech quality in various radio channel conditions. For this reason, 3GPP (under which the next stage GSM speech quality will be realized) has selected the AMR codec as an essential speech codec for the next generation system.
AMS: Adaptive MIMO Switching
Adaptive MIMO Switching (AMS) is a scheme to switch between multiple MIMO modes to maximize spectral efficiency with no reduction in coverage area. In an adaptive MIMO switching system, the system parameters are jointly optimized to adapt to the changing channel conditions through link adaptation techniques that can track the time-varying characteristics of the wireless channel. The goal is to maximize the resources available in multiple antenna channels by using optimal schemes at all times.
AMTA: American Mobile Telecommunications
American Mobile Telecommunications Association (AMTA) is a trade group, based in Washington, D.C., representing specialized mobile radio operators
Analog system uses an analog transmission method to send voice, video and data-using analog signals, such as electricity or sound waves, that are continuously variable rather than discreet units as in digital transmissions. Mobile analog systems include AMPS, NMT and ETACS.
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