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Word Explanation

The CDF file suffix is associated with the Nominal Small Business Accounting Software. File contains company data.


Blu-ray is a DVD format for storing high-definition video. Blu-ray is one of the two new emerging high definition formats, the other is HD DVD.

Blu-ray gets its name from the blue laser it users. Standard DVD uses a red laser to read discs.

Blu-ray is designed to replace standard DVD’s. A Blu-ray disk can hold up to 25 GB per layer as opposed to HD DVD which holds on 15 GB per layer.

Blu-ray development was spear-headed by Sony, the original developer of Beta-Max. Other companies that support Blu-ray include Apple, Dell and Panasonic.

Blu-ray implements DRM with a scheme called BD+.

Currently the PlayStation 3 has a Blu-ray drive.

Air Link Interface

The network interface between a MES and the CDPD service provider network.


Association of Public Safety Communications Officials A set of standards for private radio networks designed specifically for public safety (police, fire, emergency services) applications in North America It includes standards for common air access, encryption, over the air reprogramming, data port interface, host data interface, trunking, inter-connection to PSTN and network management. APCO-25 was adopted in 1995 and is a digital standard, as compared to APCO-16 that was analog.


Inter eXchange Carrier. Another name for a long distance telephone company


Metropolitan Area Exchange or Metropolitan Area Ethernet. A major Internet Network Access Point (NAP) where different providers and networks hand off traffic to each other. The two main MAEs in the United States are MAE East in Washington, DC and MAE West in Silicon Valley.

Terminal Adapter

An electronic device that interfaces a PC with a host computer via an ISDN phone line. They are often called "ISDN modems"; however, because they are digital, Terminal Adapters are not modems at all.


There are many hoaxes continually popping up on the nets. False viruses are the most common of these with names like "Join the Crew" or "PenPal Greetings", but there are many more themes that keep recurring. Appeals to charity is a common theme for a hoax, sometimes partially based in fact. If you get a chain letter appeal about Jessica Mydek or Craig Shergold or anything involving the Make A Wish Foundation, please check it out first before spreading it.

There are also lots of stories going around about Bill Gates and money-making schemes and expensive cookie recipes and stolen kidneys, all of which are interesting stories, but usually false or even fraudulent. You can read more about hoaxes in our feature article, Hoaxes and Urban Legends.

When in doubt, never spread a story around. Instead, check the Department of Energy's Computer Incident Advisory Committee (CIAC) Hoaxes Page or ask us here in the NavNet Forum or check out our glossary items for virus or for the taller tales, urban legends.


The controlling elements that compensate, or, offset the undesirable characteristics of the process being controlled in a system.

Duty Cycle

The ratio of the lengths of the positive to negative halves of a waveform expressed in percentages.

Trigger Holdoff

A front-panel control that inhibits the trigger circuit from looking for a trigger for some specified time after the end of the trace.

Single Sweep

The ability of an oscilloscope to display just one window of time, thus preventing unwanted multiple displays. Useful for trace photography.


The oscilloscope frequency range within which performance of a particular characteristic falls within specified limits, commonly defined as the difference between the upper and lower frequency at which the response is .707 (-3dB) of the response at the reference frequency.


The decrease in signal amplitude during its transmission from one point to another


Height of a waveform above ground (1/2 peak-peak value)

Alternating Current (AC):

An electric current whose instantaneous value and direction change periodically. The term usually refers to sinusoidally shaped current or voltage waves.

Alternate Sweep

A vertical mode of operation for a dual-trace oscilloscope. The signal from the second channel is displayed after the signal from the first channel. Each trace has a complete trace, and the display continues to alternate. This mode is used for SEC/DIV settings of less than 1 ms/div (faster than 1 kHz).

AC Signal

The time variant portion of a voltage or current.


Graphic representation of the variation of a quantity (such as volts) as a function of some variable, usually time


The unit of electric potential difference that and electromotive force equal to the difference of potential between two points on a conductor carrying a constant one-ampere current when the power dissipated between these two points is equal to one watt.


The iPhone is a line of Internet and multimedia enabled smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone functions as a camera phone (also including text messaging and visual voicemail), a portable media player (equivalent to a video iPod), and an Internet client (with e-mail, web browsing, and Wi-Fi connectivity) — using the phone's multi-touch screen to provide a virtual keyboard in lieu of a physical keyboard.

Strip Tags

string striptags ( string $str [, string $allowabletags ] ) This function tries to return a string with all HTML and PHP tags stripped from a given str . It uses the same tag stripping state machine as the fgetss() function.


CTP:(Composite Theoretical Performance) CTP is used to measure the performance of computer processors. The values returned by CTP calculations are used for benchmarking purposes, which compare the performance of different processors. For example, Intel and AMD use CTP calculations to measure how many millions of theoretical operations per second (MTOPS) their processors can perform. An Intel Pentium M 770, which runs at 2.13 GHz, has a CTP of 7100 MTOPs, while an AMD Opteron 146, which runs at 2.0 GHz, has a CTP of 7168 MTOPS. As seen in the example above, faster processor speeds do not always result in a higher CTP. Other considerations, such as the processor's architecture and the speed of the frontside bus also affect the overall performance. CTP is useful for comparing different brands of processors, as well as comparing different models of processors made by the same company. With dual and quad processors becoming more prevalent, CTP is now also being used to measure the performance increase when multiple processors are used together. CTP also stands for "Computer to Plate." This is a process where printing plates are made without using costly film. Instead, the images are sent directly to the plate from the computer.

ASCII file

American Standard Code for Information Interchange file. A file whose data is in ASCII characters. An ASCII file does not include formatting such as bold, italic, centered text, etc. Each byte in the file is one ASCII character, represented as a number; for example, capital H is ASCII 72. Some ASCII files contain program source code, scripts, or macros written as text. ASCII files are useful in transferring text between files of different formats that can't be imported into each other. An ASCII file can be created with a text editor; some word processing programs, such as XyWrite and Microsoft Word, can also create ASCII files.


(ASYNC) Not synchronized by a common timing signal. In asynchronous communication, each character can be transmitted at any time and is distinguished by a start bit and stop bit; in synchronous communication the start and stop bits are not needed as there is a regular time interval between transmissions. With asynchronous terminals, a transmission can be initiated at either end.

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