|RFID: Radio frequency identification|
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a system for tagging and identifying mobile objects such as store merchandise, postal packages and sometimes living organisms (like pets). RFID uses low-powered radio transmitters to read data stored in a transponder (tag) at distances ranging from one inch to 100 feet. RFID tags are used to track assets, manage inventory and authorize payments, and they increasingly serve as electronic keys for everything from autos to secure facilities. RFID works using small (sometimes smaller than a fingernail) pieces of hardware called RFID chips. These chips feature an antenna to transmit and receive radio signals. So-called passive RFID chips do not have a power source, but active RFID chips do. RFID chips may be attached to objects, or in the case of some passive RFID systems, injected into objects.
Location Server allows end users to connect real-time location information from mobile service operator with mapping and routing information. Location server enables mobile service providers to provide their end-users with personalized contents that are location-dependent.
Logic Channel is a communications channel derived from a physical channel. A physical channel, i.e. RF channel, typically carries a data stream that contains several logical channels. These usually include multiple control and traffic channels.
|LOS: Line of Sight|
Line of Sight (LOS) describes an unobstructed radio path or link between the transmitting and receiving antennas of a communications system. The opposite to LOS is NLOS, or Non Line of Sight.
|LOS: Loss of Signal|
Loss of signal (LOS) is a condition where the received signal drops below threshold due to a terrain obstruction or other phenomenon increasing the link budget loss beyond design parameters.
|LPA: Linear Power Amplifier|
Linear Power Amplifier (LPA) is the final amplification stage in a multicarrier transmitter that has been designed and optimized to produce a linear response. By operating in the linear mode, the amplifier reduces the non-linear effects that produce intermodulation products and side-lobe spectra that cause adjacent channel interference.
|LTE: Long Term Evolution|
Long Term Evolution (LTE), sometimes also referred to as 3G LTE or Super-3G, is the 3GPP radio technology evolution architecture. Its full name is UTRA-UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE).
|LPC: Linear Predictive Coding|
Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) is a speech encoding scheme that uses periodic pulses to excite a filter, similar to the way human voice is produced.The code is predictive in that it uses knowledge of past data (represented as vectors) to predict future values in a feed forward manner.
|LSB: Least Significant Bit|
Least Significant Bit (LSB), in a binary coding scheme, is the bit having the least numerical value. Analogous to the units position in a decimal number.
Lu is one of four interfaces connecting the UTRAN internally or externally to other functional entities. The other three are Uu, lub and lur. The lu interface is an external interface that connects the RNC to the Core Network (CN). Lu is the standardized interface between a Radio Network Controller Network and Packet Subsystem (e.g. RNC-3GSGSN).
Lub is one of four interfaces connecting the UTRAN internally or externally to other functional entities. The other three are Uu, lu and lur. The lub is an internal interface connecting the RNC with the Node B. And at last there is the lur interface which is an internal interface most of the time, but can, exceptionally be an external interface too for some network architectures. Lub is the interface between a Base Station and Radio NetworkController.
Lur is one of four interfaces connecting the UTRAN internally or externally to other functional entities. The other three are lu, Uu, and lub. The lur interface which is an internal interface most of the time, but can, exceptionally be an external interface for some network architectures, too. The lur connects two RNCs with each other.
MAC address (Media Access Control address) is the address associated with every hardware device on the network. Every wireless 802.11 device has its own specific MAC address hard-coded into it. This unique identifier can be used to provide security for wireless networks. When a network uses a MAC table, only the 802.11 radios that have had their MAC addresses added to that network's MAC table are able to get onto the network.
MACRO Cell, also known as macrocell, is a large cell in a wireless system capable of covering a large physical area. Macrocells are used in rural areas and other areas where subscriber or traffic densities are low.
|MAHO: Mobile Assisted Handoff|
Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO) is a handoff technique involving feedback from the mobile station as part of the handoff process. The feedback is usually in the form of signal level and quality measurements on the downlink and signal level measurements from neighbor cells.
|MAI: Multiple Access Interference|
Multiple Access Interference (MAI) is a type of interference caused by multiple cellular users who are using the same frequency allocation at the same time. In both 2G and 3G moble networking, each user is then given a pair of frequencies (uplink and downlink) and a time slot during a frame. Different users can use the same frequency in the same cell except that they must transmit at different times. This multiple-access interference can present a significant problem if the power level of the desired signal is significantly lower (due to distance) than the power level of the interfering user.
|MANET: Mobile Ad Hoc Network|
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) refers to a type of mobile network in which each node has the ability to act as a router, permitting adaptable multihop communications. The establishment and maintenance of these routes, however, is severely affected by the stochastic nature of wireless communications, making it diffcult to implement such nets in practice.
|MAP: Mobile Application Part|
The Mobile Application Part (MAP), one of the protocols in the SS7 suite, allows for the implementation of the mobile network (GSM) signaling infrastructure. The premise behind MAP is to connect the distributed switching elements, called mobile switching centers (MSCs), with a master database, called the Home Location Register (HLR). The HLR dynamically stores the current location and profile of a mobile network subscriber. The HLR is consulted during the processing of an incoming call.
|Master Access Point|
Master Access Point is the primary access point in a wireless network that uses WDS to extend range. The master access point shares the Internet connection with the rest of the remote, or relay access points, along with all the wireless clients.
Matched filter is the receiver filter with impulse response equal to the timereversed,complex conjugate impulse response of the combined transmitter filter-channel impulse response.
|MBMS: Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Ser|
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) is a broadcasting service that can be offered via existing GSM and UMTS cellular networks. The infrastructure offers an option to use an uplink channel for interaction between the service and the user, which is not a straightforward issue in usual broadcast networks, as for example conventional digital television is only a one-way (unidirectional) system. MBMS uses multicast distribution in the core network instead of point-to-point links for each end device.
|MBOA: MultiBand OFDM Alliance|
MultiBand OFDM Alliance (MBOA) was an industrial association with a focus on the Ultra WideBand wireless communication technologies. The Multi-Band OFDM Alliance and the WiMedia Alliance were merged in 2005, under the name or WiMedia Alliance to align goals more fully.
|MBS: Mobile Broadband Systems|
Mobile Broadband Systems (MBS) are extensions of the wired B-ISDN system. MBS provides radio coverage restricted to a small area (e.g. sports arena, factory, television studio) and supports communications between MBS mobile terminals and terminals directly connected to the B-ISDN at up to 155 Mbit/s.
|MBWA: Mobile Broadband Wireless Access|
Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA), nicknamed as Mobile-Fi, is an IEEE standard defined by the 802.20 group to define the interface that allows the creation of low-cost, always-on, and truly mobile broadband wireless networks. The scope of the MBWA standard consists of the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC), and logical link control (LLC) layers. The air interface will operate in bands below 3.5 GHz and with a peak data rate of over 1 Mbit/s.
MC-CDMA, also called CDMA2000, typically means the combination of three IS-95 carriers to form one wideband carrier. It is an evolution of IS-95 for third generation systems.