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There are 370 names in this directory beginning with the letter D.
D/A conversion

Digital to Analog conversion. The translation of digital information (1s and 0s) into analog information, such as sound waves.

D/L

Download. To receive a data transmission.

D1

Broadcast-quality digital video format that is “raw,” or not compressed. Uses 1MB for each frame.

D2

Broadcast-quality digital video format that integrates with analog equipment.

D3

Broadcast-quality digital video format recorded on half-inch tape. Is a cheaper alternative to D1 recording.

D4

Framing format for T1 transmission. Places 12 T1 frames into a superframe.

D5

Broadcast-quality digital video format recorded on half-inch tape. Cheaper alternative to D1 recording.

DA

Desk Accessory. A small, useful program that is analogous to an item on a real office desktop, such as a clock, calculator, calendar, and message pad. Macintosh desktop accessories can be made easily available by putting them in the Apple menu. Windows desk accessories are in the Accessories group.

DAC

Digital to Analog Converter. An electronic circuit that converts digital information (for example, from a CD or CD-ROM) into analog information, such as sound and audio signals.

DAD

1. Database Action Diagram. Describes the processing of data in a database. 2. Digital Audio Disk, or compact disk (CD).

daemon

A UNIX program that runs continuously in the background, until it is activated by a particular event. This word is often used to refer to programs that handle e-mail. The word daemon is Greek for “an attendant power or spirit.”

DAI

Distributed Artificial Intelligence.

daisy chain

A configuration in which devices are connected to each other in sequence, like a chain of daisies.

daisywheel printer

A impact printer that uses a rotating plastic wheel with the type characters on it. The wheel spins to line up the correct character to print. Daisywheel printers produced high-quality type, and were common in the 1980s but fell out of use when laser printers became affordable.

DAL

Data Access Language. An Apple database interface that enables Macintosh computers to access certain databases on other computers and platforms.

DAM

(Digital Automatic Music). DAM CDs contain music in both MP3 and standard CD audio format. They can be played from an MP3 player or CD player. They often include special releases not available elsewhere.

DAM CD

(Digital Automatic Music). DAM CDs contain music in both MP3 and standard CD audio format. They can be played from an MP3 player or CD player. They often include special releases not available elsewhere.

dancing baloney

Animated images and other small moving objects that decorate a Web site.

Dante

A nonprofit organization that aids European research communities in enhancing network capabilities, primarily focusing on building a high-speed computer network infrastructure. Located at www.dante.net. Established in 1993.

DAP

Directory Access Protocol. In an X.500 directory system, the protocol used in communications between a Directory User Agent (DUA) and a Directory System Agent (DSA).

dark fiber

Fiber-optic cable when it is not carrying a signal. When a signal is being carried, it is called lit fiber.

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Federal agency that began as ARPA, and started the Internet. It became ARPA again in 1990.

DASD

Direct Access Storage Device. A peripheral device for a mainframe computer, such as a disk or drum, that can be directly addressed.

DAT

Digital Audio Tape. A kind of magnetic tape originally designed for audio format, now also used in computers to back up data. DAT cassettes are about the size of audio cassettes, and can store up to 12GB.

data

Information; raw facts. Data can be input into a computer and processed in various ways. For a computer to process data, it must be translated into a form the computer can handle. The smallest discrete element of data that a computer can understand is a bit, or “binary digit”. The human brain also processes data fed to it by the sensory organs.

data bank

Database; an organized collection of data.

data bits

bits that contain information, as opposed to bits used for starting, stopping, or error checking.

data bus

A communication route through which data can travel between the computer’s central processing unit, memory, and peripherals. A 32-bit data bus can transfer 32 bits of data at one time.

data carrier

1. A medium that holds machine readable data. (tape, disk, CD, DVD, etc.)
2. A carrier frequency for data transmission.

data code

1. A coding system for abbreviating and separating data into categories such as region, class, product, etc.
2. A digital coding system for computerized data–i.e., ASCII, EBCDIC.

data communication

The transfer of data from one computer to another.

data compression

The encoding of data so it takes up less storage space. PKZIP for PC and Stuffit for Macintosh are data compression programs.

data conversion

Changing from one type of file format to another.

Data Discman

A portable drive from Sony that plays 8cm discs, originally audio CD-singles. It can play CDs in ISO 9660 format and compressed audio in CD-ROM-XA format.

data encryption

Putting data into a secret code so it is unreadable except by authorized users. (Also see encryption.)

data entry

Any process of entering data into a computer. Usually as a job description, data entry means typing information into a database program.

data error reading drive X

A DOS error message which means an area of the disk is unreadable. Sometimes, a utility program can reconstruct the damaged area.

data flow

1. The path taken by a message from origination to destination. 2. The path of data from source document to final document.

data fork

The data fork is one of two “forks” in Macintosh files. One is called the data fork and the other is called the resource fork. The data fork is simply for storing data, which is stored as as series of bytes. For example, if a text file were to be dissected, the actual text would be found in the data fork. Additional information like font size and positioning would be found in the resource fork.

Data General Corporation

A Westboro, Massachusetts computer manufacturer. Some products are the Nova minicomputers, Eclipse computers, and AViiON UNIX servers.

data interchange format

A standard file format for spreadsheet and other data structured in row and column format.

data item

One unit of data stored in a field.

data library

A directory on a server that contains files for downloading.

data link

1. The physical connection between two points in a communications circuit, such as a telephone wire or a microwave beam. 2. The physical connection (such as wires) and the logical connection (protocols and programs) between points in a communications circuit. See also data link layer.

data link layer

Layer 2 of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) networking model, which concerns data packets and reliable data transfer. The data link layer detects and may correct errors in the physical layer.

data mining

Using computer technology to look for hidden patterns in a collection of data. For example, data mining for marketing research might reveal that customers interested in one product will also be interested in another. Data mining can be useful in scientific research, economics, criminology, and many other fields. Specialized database software has been developed for data mining.

data packet

A format in which data is transmitted over a network. A packet contains the data itself as well as addresses, error checking, and other information necessary to ensure the packet arrives intact at its intended destination.

data portability

The possibility for a set of data to be transferred from one operating system to another.

data projector

A device that projects whatever is on the computer's display onto a big screen.

data rate

The speed with which data is transfered over a circuit or a communications line between a computer and a periperal, within the computer, or within a network. It is usually measured in bits per second (bps).

data recovery

The loss of computer files can be a real crisis if no backup has been made. Corrupted data resulting from damaged disks, viruses, power spikes, and other problems can sometimes be restored. Restoration can take the form of repairing damaged disks or rescuing lost files. Norton Utilities is one popular data recovery program.

data series

In a spreadsheet, a data series is a grouping of related information, such as expenditures for each of the last 6 months. A data series can be used to create a chart which will help predict trends.

data sink

A functional unit that receives data which is transmitted.

data source name

(DSN). In a Web page that is linked to a database, or several databases, a name that is used to refer data queries, or entered data, from the Web page to the desired database, through ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).

data stream

A flow of data from one place to another.

Data Terminal Ready

(DTR). A signal from a communications program to a modem, which means the program is loaded and ready to run. The modem’s TR (Terminal Ready) light goes on when the modem has received this signal.

data traffic

The number of TCP/IP packets that traverse a network.

data transfer rate

(DTR). The speed at which data can be transferred. Measured in kilobytes per second for a CD-ROM drive, in bits per second for a modem, and in megabytes per second for a hard drive.

data warehouse

A very large database designed for fast processing of queries, projections, and data summaries, normally used by a large organization.

database

1. A large collection of data organized for rapid search and retrieval. 2. A program that manages data, and can be used to store, retrieve, and sort information. Examples are Lotus Approach, Microsoft Access, Filemaker, and dBASE. See also Lotus Approach

Database 2

(DB2). A relational database management system from IBM, which is available for PC, OS/2, HP, and Sun computers.

database front end

An interface which integrates database programs with other applications.

database management system

(DBMS) A complex set of programs that control the organization, storage and retrieval of data for many users; extensively used in business environments. Data is organized in fields, records and files. A database management system must also control the security of the database. Examples of database management systems are Oracle, Sybase, and Datacom.

database server

(DBS). A computer in a local area network that maintains a database and performs searches for client computers.

DATACOM

Data Communications.

datagram

A data packet carrying its own address information so it can be independently routed from its source to the destination computer.

DataTimes Corporation

An online service offering newspapers, magazines, financial information, and database services, based in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

datum

A fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make a calculation (singular of data).

daughterboard

In a personal computer, a small printed circuit board that plugs into a motherboard.

DAV

Digital Audio Video.

DB

Database. (Also see dB(decibel)).

dB

Decibel. 1. A unit that measures loudness or power, named after Alexander Graham Bell (one-tenth of a bel). 2. A unit of measurement of the loudness or intensity of sound. Audible sounds range from about 20 to 100 dB. 3. A ratio of the difference in power of two electric signals.

DB connector

A connector for a computer cable in which the plug and socket are D-shaped so they only fit together one way. DB connectors are often used for serial ports. DB-9 connectors have 9 pins and are used to connect a mouse. DB-25 connectors have 25 pins and are used to connect a printer.

DB/DC

Database/Data Communications. This term is used in describing software that has both database and communications capabilities.

DB2

Database 2. A relational database management system from IBM, which is available for PC, OS/2, HP, and Sun computers.

dBASE

A widely-used database management system, and the language used by it.

DBMS

Data Base Management System. A complex set of programs that control the organization, storage and retrieval of data for many users; extensively used in business environments. Data is organized in fields, records and files. A database management system must also control the security of the database. Examples of database management systems are Oracle, Sybase, and Datacom.

DBS

Database Server. The computer in a local area network that stores and manages the database, retrieving files for clients in the network.

DC

Direct current . An electric current flowing in one direction only.

DCA

1. Directory Client Agent. The agent used to search for names and addresses in an X.500 directory. 2. Defense Communications Agency. The government agency responsible for the Defense Data Network (DDN).

DCBS

Double-Byte Character Set. A character set which uses 16-bit (two-byte) characters rather than 8-bit (one-byte) characters. Using double-byte characters expands the possible number of combinations of 1s and 0s from 256 (as in ASCII) to 65,536 (or 256 x 256). Double-byte character sets are needed for such languages as Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, which have many characters. These character sets must be used with hardware and software that supports the double-byte format.

DCE

Digital Computing Enviroment

DCOM

Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM). An extension of COM (Component Object Model), DCOM was developed by Microsoft for Windows Operating Systems. It supports objects distributed across a network, much like IBM's DSOM protocol, which is an implementation of CORBA.

DD

Double-Density. Double-density disks have twice as much storage space per unit area than the outdated single-density format, but have less storage space than high-density disks. Double-density 3.5″ floppy disks are 720k DOS, 800k Mac, and have 2DD written on them. Double-density 5.25″ floppies have a 360k capacity.

DD-MM-YY

DayDay MonthMonth YearYear.

DD-MM-YYYY

DayDay MonthMonth YearYearYearYear.

DDB

Device Dependent Bitmap.

DDC

Display Data Channel. VESA communications line between display adapter and monitor.

DDD

Direct Distance Dialing. A telephone service that allows users to dial long distance without having to call an operator.

DDE

Dynamic Data Exchange. A Windows 3 protocol that allows communication between applications so that when a document is updated in one application, related information will be updated in other documents linked to it in this way.

DDN

Defense Data Network. A network made up of MILNET and several other Department of Defense networks.

ddr

double data rate.

ddr

double data rate.

de

Top-level newsgroup category for a German newsgroup.

de facto standard

A standard which is widely used and accepted even though it is not official.

dead start

Loading and starting the system from power off; the same as a cold boot.

DeArj

A utility for decompressing archive files that have the .arj extension.

debug

To fix problems in hardware or software.

DEC

Digital Equipment Corporation. A computer manufacturer and software vendor. The Digital PDP series pioneered the minicomputer industry.

decibel

(dB). 1. A unit of measurement of the loudness or intensity of sound. 2. A ratio of the difference in power of two electric signals.

decillion

10^33 (U.S. and Canada); 10^60 (Europe).

decimal

Base 10; the numbering system in common use, in which each place to the left or right of the decimal represents a power of 10. The base 10 numbering system uses the numerals 0 to 9. The number one-hundred twenty, for example, is written 120 (1 in the hundreds place, 2 in the tens place, and 0 in the ones place). Computer languages use binary, or base 2, and hexadecimal (base 16), rather than decimal numbers.

decimal numbers

Numbers expressed in base 10, the numbering system in common use, in which each place to the left or right of the decimal represents a power of 10. Computer languages use binary, or base 2, numbers, and sometimes hexadecimal (base 16) numbers.

decimal point

( . ) ASCII character 46. Also called point; dot; period.

decimal tab

A tab setting that places the decimal point of any number at the tab stop; digits to the right and left of the decimal are aligned in place, so that the decimals are aligned vertically in a column and figures can be added or subtracted.

deckle

Ten bits.

DECmate

A word processing program.

DECnet

A network protocol from Digital Equipment Corporation, which can interconnect PDP, VAX, PC, and Macintosh computers.

decoder

Hardware or software that translates a coded signal back to its original form. Decoders are used to enable a computer to recognize instructions and addresses.

decompiler

A program that translates machine code back into a high-level source language.

decompress

To restore a compressed file to its original size.

decompression

Restoring a compressed file to its original format.

decompressor

A utility that restores a compressed file to its original size.

decrypt

To decode encrypted data.

decryption

Decoding encrypted data.

Dedicated IP Address

A static or dedicated IP Address is a type of account from an ISP where your computer(s) are assigned the same IP Address at all times. While this used to be a requirement for web-site serving, it is usually used today for security purposes.

dedicated line

A telecommunications line that lets your computer have a direct,
permanent connection to the Internet; in contrast with a dial-up connection which is only opened for temporary use. A dedicated line is assigned to only one purpose, and is always connected to the same equipment.

default

An instruction that a computer assumes, unless the user gives it other instructions. For example, if the default typeface on a word processing program is Times Roman, the user may instruct the machine to use a different default typeface; once the program is opened, a variety of types may be used, regardless of the default setting.

defect analysis

Analyzing defects, and trying to find their causes, in order to make improvements.

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agenc

(DARPA). The Federal agency that began as ARPA, and began the Internet. It became ARPA again in 1990.

Defense Communications Agency

(DCA). The government agency responsible for the Defense Data Network (DDN). Now called Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA).

Defense Data Network

(DDN). A network made up of MILNET and several other Department of Defense networks.

Defense Information Systems Agency

(DISA). The government agency responsible for the Defense Data Network (DDN). Formerly called DCA.

Defense Switched Network

(DSN). The voice, data and video communications networks of the U.S. Department of Defense, administered by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA); a single, integrated telephone system created from many civil and military systems, with added data communications and video teleconferencing.

definite iteration

Repeating a series of instructions for a fixed number of times; for example, performing a calculation on each item in a list.

defragment

A fragmented hard disk has parts of files stored in many different locations. To retrieve a file, the computer must search and retrieve all the fragments. Defragmenting a disk puts all the parts of each file together in one location. This reduces the time the computer spends locating files.

degauss

To demagnetize. Color monitors and the read/write heads in disk and tape drives need to be degaussed periodically to neutralize unwanted magnetism. Some monitors degauss themselves automatically when they are turned on.

degaussing

Demagnetizing; a feature of some color monitors is that they degauss themselves automatically when turned on. Color monitors and the read/write heads in disk and tape drives need to be degaussed from time to time, to neutralize unwanted magnetism.

Degrees of Freedom

(DOF). A virtual reality term used to describe motion.

del

A DOS command to delete a file.

DEL

Delete key. The key on the keyboard which is used to delete selected text or objects.

delete

1. To erase data from a file or remove a file from a storage medium. On the computer, deleted files are no longer visible in the directory, but the files may still be on the disk, and recently-deleted files may still be recovered through the use of software like Norton Utilities. 2. ASCII code 127, the control character entered by pressing the delete or backspace key. It erases the character immediately to the left of the cursor.

http://www.dell.com.

Delphi

An online service from News Corporation in Cambridge, Massachusetts that provides full Internet access, many databases, shopping, and electronic mail.

demand paging

A function of virtual memory in which a memory page is paged in when there is a demand for it, in other words when the program tries to access a page that is not already available in main memory.

demibold

A font style in which the characters are a weight between regular text and bold. Also called demi.

demilitarized zone firewall

A firewall architecture which employs two routers to filter and transfer information between an organization's internal network and the Internet.

demo

A free or low-priced sample of a program (often with some features disabled) that is intended to give the user enough of a taste to want to buy the program.

demonstration

1. A presentation of a product or service, showing its features and how it works, to a potential customer. 2. A preview of software (incomplete or with some features disabled) distributed for free or a low price, in order to interest users in buying the complete program.

demonstration program

A sample of a program distributed for free or a low price; the demonstration program is a partial version or has some features disabled, and is intended to entice the user to buy the complete program. A demonstration program is different from a beta version, which is a complete program distributed so users can test it and report problems.

demultiplexer

A device that separates signals that have been combined by a multiplexer for transmission over a communications channel as a single signal.

demultiplexing

The separation of signals that have been combined by a multiplexer into a single signal for transmission over a medium such as a telephone line. Demultiplexing occurs on the receiving end of the transmission.

deprecated software

Software that is considered obsolete and on its way out, usually in favor of something better. Usually, though the software may have been originally included as part of an installation, administration no longer installs the program, and slowly support for the program is phased out.

descender

The part of a character that descends below the baseline. Lowercase g, j, p, q and y have descenders; a, e, and o do not.

deselect

To cancel the selection of an item, area of text, or group of items. A mouse can be used to deselect by clicking outside the selected area, or keyboard commands can be used. When an item or area of text is deselected, it is no longer highlighted.

Designer

A Windows draw program by Micrografx, Inc.

DesignWave

A professional mechanical design and drafting program, with features that expand on traditional CAD programs.

desk accessory

(DA). A small, useful program that is analogous to an item on a real office desktop, such as a clock, calculator, calendar, and message pad. Macintosh desktop accessories can be made easily available by putting them in the Apple menu. Windows desk accessories are in the Accessories group.

deskew

To undo a skew command.

DeskJet

A line of ink-jet printers from Hewlett Packard for PCs.

desktop

The whole computer screen, which represents an office desktop. With a graphical interface, the icons on the screen resemble objects that would be found on a real desktop, such as file folders, a clock, etc.

desktop case

A case for the main components of a computer system that usually sits on the desk underneath the monitor.

desktop computer

A computer that is small enough to sit on a desktop.

desktop publishing

(DTP) Using a desktop computer to produce camera-ready copy for printing. Desktop publishing makes use of word processing programs, page layout programs, and a printer. Sometimes a scanner is used for images, and draw or paint programs may be used to create artwork. Two programs used a lot in desktop publishing are PageMaker and QuarkXPress.

desktop video

(DTV). A video production made with a desktop computer and home video equipment.

DeskWriter

A line of inkjet printers for Macintosh from Hewlett Packard.

destination

The destination is the location to which a file is moved or copied.

device driver

A program that extends the operating system to support a device such as a disk or tape drive; or a program that enables an application to use a device such as a printer driver. Hardware devices such as sound cards, printers, scanners, and CD-ROM drives must each have the proper driver installed in order to run.

device handler

The component of a device driver that communicates directly with the hardware device.

device independent bitmap

(DIB ). Device independent BMP (bitmap) files are bitmapped graphic files that can be used with many different monitors and printers. An example is TIFF (Tagged Image File Format).

df

A UNIX command meaning “Check disk space”.

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Windows NT Server software that assigns an IP address to each node in a network.

Dhrystone

A benchmark program that tests a variety of functions. The measure of a computer's speed in Dhrystones per second means the number of times the test program can be run in one second.

DHTML

Dynamic HTML. HTML documents with dynamic content; the three components of DHTML pages are HTML, JavaScript, and cascading style sheets. The three components are tied together with DOM, the Document Object Model.

DIA

Document Interchange Architecture. A document interchange format from IBM that allows different types of computers to exchange documents.

dial tone

An audible tone which signals that a telephone is ready to be dialed.

dial-up

A connection which uses the public telephone network. Contrast with dedicated line.

dial-up account

A type of Internet account that allows you to to dial up the Internet service provider's computer with a modem. This is a temporary connection, as opposed to a dedicated line.

Dial-Up Networking

A computer network that a user can access remotely via modem.

dialog box

A box on the computer screen that lets the user communicate with the computer. A dialog box can be used to enter information, set options, or give commands to the computer. The dialog box gives the user choices (such as open file, delete, save) which can be selected by clicking with the mouse.

DIB

1. Device Independent Bitmap. Device independent BMP (bitmap) files are bitmapped graphic files that can be used with many different monitors and printers. An example is TIFF (Tagged Image File Format). 2. Directory Information Base. An X.500 directory or online white pages.

dibit

Two bits. The possible combinations of two consecutive bits are 00, 01, 10 and 11. In phase modulation, each combination represents one of four carrier phase shifts.

DIF

Data Interchange Format. A file format for spreadsheets and relational databases.

diff

A UNIX command to display the differences between two text files.

Difference Engine

An invention conceived by British mathematician Charles Babbage in 1822. During Babbage's time, teams of mathematicians worked long hours developing trigonometry tables. The Difference Engine was a hand-crank machine that did these calculations for them, and processed the results far more accurate than the primitive calculators of the time. Babbage also created the “Analytical Engine.” See that entry for more details.

Diffie-Hellman

The first published technique for public key cryptography, based on the difficulty of calculating logs in modular arithmetic.

digerati

(Similar to "literati".) People who are experts in information technology.

digest

A mailing list option that allows a user to receive one big message instead of a lot of little ones.

digispeak

The abbreviated language used by people typing on their computers in e-mail messages, chat room conversations, and other online communication. Expressions such as IMHO (In My Humble Opinion) and CUL8R (See You Later) shorten the amount of typing that has to be done. Especially in real-time communication, abbreviating some words helps get the message across faster.

Digital Audio Tape

(DAT). A kind of magnetic tape originally designed for audio format, now also used in computers to back up data. DAT cassettes are about the size of audio cassettes, and can store up to 12GB.

Digital Automatic Music

(DAM). DAM CDs contain music in both MP3 and standard CD audio format. They can be played from an MP3 player or CD player. They often include special releases not available elsewhere.

digital camera

A camera that takes pictures without film, and records the images in digital form. The camera stores the snapshots in its memory for transfer to a computer.

digital channel

A communication channel which carries digital signals only. In order to carry voice or video signals on a digital channel, all analog signals must first be converted to digital signals before they can be carried over a digital channel. Compare analog channel.

Digital Coast

Los Angeles' competitor to Silicon Valley; a region of many high-tech companies. This is somewhat of an antiquated term.

digital computer

A computer that operates on data which is represented as binary digits (0s and 1s). All commonly-used computers are digital. See analog computer, hybrid computer.

Digital Darkroom

A Macintosh photo editing program from Silicon Beach Software, Inc.

Digital Equipment Corporation

(DEC). A computer manufacturer and software vendor. The Digital PDP series pioneered the minicomputer industry.

digital information

Information stored in binary form that a computer can understand. Text, graphics, and sound are all stored as 1s and 0s in a computer.

Digital Millennium Copyright Act

A bill which indicates United States acceptance of online copyright provisions agreed to by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

digital pseudonym

A pseudonym an individual can use to set up an online account with an organization without revealing personal information. A public key can serve as a digital pseudonym.

Digital Semiconductor

The division of the Digital Equipment Corporation that was sold to Intel in May 1998. The Digital Semiconductor division is instrumental in developing the Alpha 64-bit processors created by the Digital Equipment Corporation.

Digital Signal Processing

(DSP). Using computers to process signals such as sound, video, and other analog signals which have been converted to digital form. Some uses of DSP are to decode modulated signals from modems, to process sound, video, and images in various ways, and to understand data from sonar, radar, and seismological readings.

digital signal processor

(DSP). A specialized CPU used for digital signal processing. Some uses of digital signal processors are with modems and sound boards.

Digital Signature Standard

(DSS). A National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard for digital signatures, used to authenticate both a message and the signer. DSS has a security level comparable to RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) cryptography, having 1,024-bit keys.

Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data

(DSVD). A digital technology for sending compressed voice and data signals at the same time over a regular telephone line.

Digital Subscriber Line

(DSL). A way of sending digital data over regular copper telephone lines. It is also called High-Speed DSL (HDSL).

digital to analog conversion

The translation of digital information (1s and 0s) into analog information, such as sound waves.

digital to analog converter

(DAC). An electronic circuit that converts digital information (for example, from a CD or CD-ROM) into analog information, such as sound and audio signals.

Digital Video Disc-Read Only Memory

(DVD-ROM). A disc like a CD-ROM that has more storage (4.7 gigabytes) and can provide digital video. DVD-ROMs with 17GB storage will soon be available.

Digital Video Interactive

(DVI). A compression/decompression technique developed by RCA, Intel, and GTE that makes it possible to store digital graphics, audio, and full-motion video on a CD-ROM, and to decompress and display these forms of data singly or in combination.

digital watermark

A watermark is a normally invisible pressure mark in expensive paper which can be seen when the paper is held up to the light. Some computer files have digital watermarks embedded in them as a pattern of bits which appear to be part of the file and are not noticeable to the user. These patterns can be used to detect unauthorized copies.

digital whiteboard

The equivalent of a blackboard, but on a computer screen. A whiteboard allows one or more users to draw on the screen while others on the network watch, and can be used for instruction the same way a blackboard is used in a classroom.

digitization

The process of translating data into digital form (binary coded files for use in computers). Scanning images, sampling sound, converting text on paper into text in computer files, all are examples of digitization.

digitizing tablet

A tablet that translates an artist's pen strokes into a computer graphic; the drawing is made on a physical tablet, which send signals into the computer to put the image on the screen.

DILLIGAD

Do I Look Like I Give A Darn?.

DIMM

Dual Inline Memory Module. A way of adding RAM to the computer. DIMMs normally have 168 pins. See also SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module).

dimmed letters

Dimmed or grayed letters appearing on a menu mean the dimmed option is not currently available. It may mean the software for that function is not installed, or that the computer is not in the mode to use that function. Available options are shown in black.

DIMMs

Dual Inline Memory Modules. A way of adding RAM to the computer. DIMMs normally have 168 pins. See also SIMMs (Single Inline Memory Modules).

DIN connector

Deutsches Institut fur Normung (German Standards Institute) connector. A plug-and-socket connector used to connect PC keyboards and other devices. The DIN plug is an open metal cylinder with pins inside in a curved pattern. DIN plugs come in two sizes: full size, 1/2 inch diameter; mini, 5/16 inch diameter.

Ding!

An instant messaging program from Activerse, Inc.

dingbats

A group of special type characters such as hearts, squares, ornamental bullets, etc. that are used for graphic design. Two popular dingbats computer fonts are Dingbats and Wingdings.

diode

Any electronic device that restricts current flow to mainly one direction. Diodes are used to convert AC to DC.

dir

A DOS command to list the contents of a directory.

direct access

The same as random access; any area of direct access memory can be accessed directly and immediately, in contrast to, for example, a magnetic tape where the tape must be wound to the point where the data is.

Direct Access Storage Device

(DASD). A peripheral device for a mainframe computer, such as a disk or drum, that can be directly addressed.

direct current

(DC). An electric current flowing in one direction only. See alternating current.

direct distance dialing

(DDD). A telephone service that allows users to dial long distance without having to call an operator.

Direct Memory Access/Addressing

(DMA). A method of transferring data from one memory area to another without having to go through the central processing unit. Computers with DMA channels can transfer data to and from devices much more quickly. Some expansion cards can access the computer's DMA channel if the DMA channel to use is specified during installation; this is sometimes done by setting a jumper or DIP switch. See also PIO.

Direct Read After Write

(DRAW). A term that describes WO (write once) and Rewritable CD-ROMs, on which the data can be accessed immediately after being written. In the case of the original CD-ROM format, data could not be immediately read after being written; the CD had to be mass replicated first.

Direct3D

Software from Microsoft DirectX that improves 3D graphics in games; 3-D graphics programming interface from Microsoft for Windows 95 and NT that provides low-level access to the frame buffer and advanced features of the display adapter for the creation of high-speed animation.

DirectDraw

A Windows 95 graphics display system.

Director

A multimedia authoring program from Macromedia, available in Windows and Macintosh versions.

Directory Access Protocol

(DAP ). In an X.500 directory system, the protocol used in communications between a Directory User Agent (DUA) and a Directory System Agent (DSA).

directory client agent

(DCA). The agent used to search for names and addresses in an X.500 directory.

directory information base

(DIB). An X.500 directory or online white pages.

Directory Information Tree

(DIT). The directory tree representing information objects in the OSI X.500 Directory.

directory path

The identification of a file by its name and the name of all directories leading to it. Example: zoo/animals/lions. Also called pathname .

directory server agent

(DSA). The program that maintains the directory information base (DIB) in an X.500 directory; a directory client agent (DCA) is used to search for names and addresses.

directory system agent

(DSA). The program that provides the X.500 Directory Service for part of a directory information base. A DSA usually provides the directory information for one organization.

directory tree

The organization of directories (or folders) and files and on a hard drive, like the branches of an upside-down tree. The main directory is called the “root directory”.

directory user agent

(DUA). The program used by the directory user to access an X.500 Directory Service.

DISA

Defense Information Systems Agency. The government agency responsible for the Defense Data Network (DDN). Formerly called DCA.

disassembler

A program that converts machine code back into assembly code.

disc

A device used to transport and store information between computers. See diskette.

Discrete Multitone

(DMT). An ANSI-standard modulation technique used with ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line).

discretionary hyphen

A hyphen that will only be set if the word falls at the end of a line which is too long. The user may override the automatic hyphenation program by selecting a place for a discretionary hyphen; then if the word has to be hyphenated, it will only break in the chosen place. Discretionary hyphens are set with special keyboard commands.

Disinfectant

A downloadable virus protection program from Northwestern University.

disk cache

A section of RAM that provides a cache between the disk and the CPU. It enables the computer to operate faster. Retrieving data from hard disk can be slow; a disk caching program helps solve this problem by placing recently accessed data in the disk cache. Next time that data is needed, it may already be available in the disk cache; otherwise a time-consuming search of the hard disk is necessary. The disk cache may also be used for writing, in which case it is written to the cache at high speed and then stored until it is written to disk during idle machine cycles. See cache and memory cache.

disk formatting

Preparing a disk so a computer can read and write data on it. Formatting a disk includes creating the physical tracks and sector identification, and creating the indexes specific to the operating system it will be used on. Floppy disks can be bought preformatted or can be formatted by the user with a program on the computer.

DiskCopy

A utility used to make an exact copy of an entire floppy disk; available for DOS, Macintosh, and OS/2.

diskette

A floppy disk. A removable, portable magnetic disk on which data and programs can be stored. The older 5-1/4 inch disks are more flexible; the 3-1/2 inch disks have a hard protective case around them and are the primary size used now.

diskSpace Explorer

A disk space manager that help users allocate hard disk capacity. It features a pie chart that graphically displays disk contents; the user can navigate through files and folders just by clicking on the pie chart. The program reports the amount of space used and space wasted by files and folders. It gives an overview of how the drive’s free space might improve if it were set for a different cluster size or file system, without actually changing current settings. The program can also free additional space by compressing folders, reducing wasted space, or deleting folders no longer needed.

display

Another word for the computer screen or monitor.

display adapter

Also called graphics card, video card, or video adapter. A circuit board that enables a computer to display information on its screen. The resolution, number of colours, and refresh rate of a monitor is determined by the kind of display adapter used, plus the limitations of the monitor itself.

display font

A font with fancy letters, especially capitals; suitable for headings but too ornate for regular text.

Display PostScript

A version of PostScript used to display files on screen. The NeXT computer uses Display PostScript.

distance education

Typically a label applied to higher education classes that a student takes from home or any location other than the campus offering the program. These programs are increasingly offered via the Internet, and are designed to be accessible to the learner “anytime, anywhere.” Term often may be interchanged with “e-learning,” “online education,” “online courses.”

Distinguished Name

(DN). The authoritative name of an entry in the OSI Directory (X.500).

DIT

Directory Information Tree. The directory tree representing information objects in the OSI X.500 Directory.

DIW

Defensive Information Warfare.

DLT

Digital Linear Tape. A type of 1/2" wide magnetic tape used for backup.

DMA

Direct Memory Access/Addressing. A method of transferring data from one memory area to another without having to go through the central processing unit. Computers with DMA channels can transfer data to and from devices much more quickly than those in which the data path goes through the computer's main processor. Some expansion cards can access the computer's DMA channel if the DMA channel to use is specified during installation; this is sometimes done by setting a jumper or DIP switch. See also PIO.

DMI

Desktop Management Interface. A management system for PCs.

DMMS

Dynamic Memory Management System.

DMP

Dot Matrix Printer. A kind of impact printer that uses small closely packed needles or “pins” and an ink ribbon to make a pattern of tiny dots which form the letters on a page. Dot matrix printers are noisy and cannot print fine-quality type, but are also inexpensive and have many uses.

DMT

Discrete Multitone. An ANSI-standard modulation technique used with ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line).

DMY

Day Month Year.

DN

Distinguished Name. The authoritative name of an entry in the OSI Directory (X.500).

DNS

Domain Name System. A database system that translates an IP address into a domain name. For example, a numeric address like 232.452.120.54 can become something like xyz.com. See also Berkeley Internet Name Domain.

docking station

A piece of hardware that a portable computer can be plugged into when it is at a fixed location. The docking station makes available devices that the portable computer is not able to support, such as a battery charger, a larger screen, additional drives, or a network.

DocuComp

A program that compares two documents and finds the differences between them; from Mastersoft, Inc.

document interchange format

A file standard developed by the U.S. Navy in 1982.

Document Object Model

Is the specification of how objects in a web page are represented, and it defines the attributes associated with each object and how objects and attributes can be manipulated.

Document Style Semantics and Specificati

(DSSSL). A document tree transformation and style language (ISO/IEC 10179:1996) made to work with SGML.

document type definition

(DTD). A way of describing the structure of an XML or SGML document and how the document relates to other objects.

documentation

Instructions that come with a software program, which may include paper or electronic manuals, README files, and online help.

DOF

Degrees of Freedom. A virtual reality term used to describe motion.

DOM

is a platform- and language-neutral interface that will allow programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure and style of documents. The document can be further processed and the results of that processing can be incorporated back into the presented page

domain model

In artificial intelligence, a model for a problem area in a knowledge-based system (a computer system designed for solving problems using a knowledge base, or collection of data from human sources).

domain name

An Internet address in alphabetic form. Domain names must have
at least 2 parts: the part on the left which names the organization, and the part on the right which identifies the highest subdomain, such as the country (fr for France, uk for United Kingdom) or the type of organization (com for commercial; edu for educational, etc.). Directory levels can be indicated in other parts. The IP address is translated into the domain name by the domain name server.

domain name system

(DNS) A database system that translates an IP address into a domain name. For example, a numeric address like 232.452.120.54 can become something like xyz.com.

DOOM

A popular 3D action game created by id Software. DOOM can be played over a network or by serial link. There are shareware versions that can be downloaded.

DOS

Disk Operating System. More computers worldwide have DOS than any other operating system. There are different versions of it: PC-DOS for IBM PCs, MS-DOS for non-IBM PCs, plus Apple DOS, Amiga DOS, Novell DOS, etc.

DOS box

DOS-compatible mode. DOS applications can be run in a Windows environment by means of a DOS box, which is a virtual DOS environment.

DOSmark

A benchmark which tests the ability of a PC to run DOS applications.

dot

A period or decimal point. This terminology is used in Internet domain names; for example, .net is pronounced "dot net."

dot address

An Internet address in dot notation, like 168.446.77.22.

dot matrix printer

A kind of impact printer that uses small closely packed needles or “pins” and an ink ribbon to make a pattern of tiny dots which form the letters on a page. Dot matrix printers are noisy and cannot print fine-quality type, but are also inexpensive and have many uses.

dot notation

An Internet address indicated by numbers with dots between them, such as 124.326.99.32. This notation can be in decimal, hexadecimal, or octal, and represents a 32-bit address.

dot pitch

The distance between a dot and the closest dot of the same color (red, green or blue) on a color monitor. The smaller the dot pitch, the crisper the image. Monochrome displays do not have dots, and therefore provide a sharper image than the best color screens.

dotted quad

Another name for an IP number. The dotted quad is a unique number consisting of four parts separated by dots, like 116.245.161.2. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number, and may have one or more domain names (like “currents.net”) which are easier to remember than the number.

double precision

Using two computer words to represent a number; contrast with single precision.

double spacing

In a word processing program, a setting that gives double the normal leading between every line of text; the same as hitting two returns on a typewriter.

double-byte character set

(DCBS). A character set which uses 16-bit (two-byte) characters rather than 8-bit (one-byte) characters. Using double-byte characters expands the possible number of combinations of 1s and 0s from 256 (as in ASCII) to 65,536 (or 256 x 256). Double-byte character sets are needed for such languages as Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, which have many characters. These character sets must be used with hardware and software that supports the double-byte format.

double-click

To click the mouse button twice; used to open programs and files.

double-density

(DD). Double-density disks have twice as much storage space per unit area than the outdated single-density format, but have less storage space than high-density disks. Double-density 3.5″ floppy disks are 720k DOS, 800k Mac, and have 2DD written on them. Double-density 5.25″ floppies have a 360k capacity.

double-layer CD

A CD with two recordable layers, both on the same side. A single head adjusts the focal length of the laser to the layer being read.

double-sided disk

A floppy disk that can be recorded on both of its sides.

double-speed CD-ROM drive

(2X) A CD-ROM drive that can read information twice as fast as a music CD. At least a double speed drive is needed for multimedia CD-ROMs, and quad speed is even better.

doubly linked list

A linked list in which each data element points to both the next and previous data elements.

doughbrain

A derogatory term for a person who uses the Internet only to make money.

Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service

An online service based in Princeton, New Jersey, offering financial information, airline reservations, shopping, and other services.

down

Not operating, usually because of hardware or software problems.

down arrow

A keyboard key which has a picture on it of an arrow pointing downward; it moves the cursor down the page.

downlink

1. In satellite communications, a link from a satellite to one of its earth stations. 2. To receive data through a downlink.

download

To transfer files or data from one computer to another. To download means to receive; to upload means to transmit.

downloadable

Available for download from the Internet or another network. Many games, utilities, shareware and freeware programs, software demos, graphics, and documents can be downloaded for free; some Web sites offer downloadable items for sale by electronic funds transfer.

downloadable font

1. A font which is not built into the printer and therefore must be installed on the computer. For PostScript fonts, there is a file for the screen font and a file for the printer font; both must be installed on the computer. Fonts built into the printer are called resident fonts. 2. A font which can be downloaded from a network.

downsizing

The movement from mainframe and minicomputer systems to microcomputer networks.

downstream

1. The direction of information passed between servers. 2. Data that moves from a server to an individual computer. It is important to note that downstream differs from upstream due to their different transfer rates; for example, cable modems transfer data up to 30 Mbps downstream, but opnly 128 Kbps to 2 Mbps upstream.

downtime

The time during which a computer is nonfunctional because of problems with hardware or system software.

downward compatible

A downward compatible version of software is able to coexist with older versions that may have been installed on the machine previously, and able to read files of the older version. Also called backward compatible.

dpi

Dots per inch. A measure of the resolution of printers, scanners and monitors. The more dots per inch, the higher the resolution: 600 dpi would mean 600 x 600 = 360,000 dots per square inch.

draft quality printing

The printing mode that produces a quick low-resolution draft, good for preliminary proofing but not the best for camera-ready copy. This is the fastest way to print but produces the lowest-quality image.

drag

To move an object around on the computer screen, first point to it, press the mouse button and hold it down, and then move the mouse.

drag and drop

Moving an object on the computer screen by selecting and dragging it with the mouse, and then dropping it onto another icon, such as the trash, or a floppy disk, or an application program. In certain programs, sections of text can also be selected, dragged to another area, and dropped in.

DRAM

Dynamic Random Access Memory. A type of computer memory that is stored in capacitors on a chip and requires a refresh signal to be sent to it periodically. Most computers have DRAM chips, because they provide a lot of memory at a low cost.

DRAW

Direct Read After Write. A term that describes WO (write once) and Rewritable CD-ROMs, on which the data can be accessed immediately after being written. In the case of the original CD-ROM format, data could not be immediately read after being written; the CD had to be mass replicated first.

drawing program

A program used for drawing illustrations. Illustration programs store images in vector graphics format. Examples are Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand, and CorelDRAW. Also called draw program.

drive

A device that spins disks or tapes in order to read and write data; for example, a hard drive, floppy drive, CD-ROM drive, or tape drive.

driver

1. A device driver is a program that extends the operating system to support a device such as a disk or tape drive; or a program that enables an application to use a device such as a printer. Hardware devices such as sound cards, printers, scanners, and CD-ROM drives must each have the proper driver installed in order to run. 2. A line driver is a circuit that is used to increase the signal current in order to send data over long distances or to many circuits. It must be at each end of the transmission line.

drivers

1. Device drivers are programs that extend the operating system to support a device such as a disk or tape drive; or programs that enable an application to use a device such as a printer driver. Hardware devices such as sound cards, printers, scanners, and CD-ROM drives must each have the proper driver installed in order to run. 2. A line driver is a circuit that is used to increase the signal current in order to send data over long distances or to many circuits. It must be at each end of the transmission line.

drop cap

In typography, a very big and often ornate first letter which drops below its line of type and may take up several lines. A drop cap usually begins a chapter or section, and the regular text wraps around it.

drop carrier

To disconnect without properly logging off.

drop-down combination box

A combination box in which the list box is hidden until the user expands it (by clicking on it with the mouse or some other action).

drop-down list

A selection field which only displays one choice at first; the rest of the list is revealed when the user clicks and holds the mouse button down, or takes some other action.

drum printer

A kind of impact printer in which the full character set is on a rotating drum, and available for each printing position.

DSA

1. Directory System Agent. The program that provides the X.500 directory service for part of a directory information base. A DSA usually provides the directory information for one organization. 2. Directory Server Agent. The program that maintains the directory information base (DIB) in an X.500 directory; a directory client agent (DCA) is used to search for names and addresses.

DSDD

Double Sided/Double Density disk (720K).

DSHD

Double Sided High Density disk (1.2 meg – 1.44 meg).

DSL

Digital Subscriber Line or Digital Subscriber Loop. A technology which enables high-speed transmission of digital data over regular copper telephone lines. See also HDSL and ADSL.

DSL Access Multiplexer (DSLAM)

Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM). A mechanism used by the phone company to link customers’ DSL connections to a single high-speed ATM line.

DSN

1. Data Source Name. In a Web page that is linked to a database, or several databases, a name that is used to refer data queries, or entered data, from the Web page to the desired database. 2. Delivery Status Notification. A MIME content-type defined by IETF that can be used by a message transfer agent (MTA) or electronic mail gateway to report the result of an attempt to deliver a message. 3. Defense Switched Network. The voice, data and video communications networks of the U.S. Department of Defense, administered by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA).

DSP

1. Digital Signal Processing. Using computers to process signals such as sound, video, and other analog signals which have been converted to digital form. Some uses of DSP are to decode modulated signals from modems, to process sound, video, and images in various ways, and to understand data from sonar, radar, and seismological readings. 2. Digital Signal Processor. A specialized CPU used for digital signal processing. Some uses of digital signal processors are with modems and sound boards.

DSQD

Double Sided Quad Density disk.

DSS

Digital Signature Standard. A National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard for digital signatures, used to authenticate both a message and the signer. DSS has a security level comparable to RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) cryptography, having 1,024-bit keys.

DSSS

This is the acronym for direct swequence spread spectrum, and it is used as a kind of spread spectrum radio. The signal becomes spread over many frequencies because of the DSSS.

DSSSL

Document Style Semantics and Specification Language. A document tree transformation and style language (ISO/IEC 10179:1996) made to work with SGML.

DSU/CSU

Digital Service Unit/Channel Service Unit. A way of connecting a communications line to an external digital circuit.

DSVD

Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data. A digital technology for sending compressed voice and data signals at the same time over a regular telephone line.

DTD

Document Type Definition. A way of describing the structure of an XML or SGML document and how the document relates to other objects.

DTMF

Dual Tone Modulation Frequency. The tones on a push-button telephone.

DTP

(Desktop Publishing) Using a desktop computer to produce camera-ready copy for printing. Desktop publishing makes use of word processing programs, page layout programs, and a printer. Sometimes a scanner is used for images, and draw or paint programs may be used to create artwork. Two programs used a lot in desktop publishing are Pagemaker and QuarkXPress.

DTR

1. Data Transfer Rate. The speed at which data can be transferred. Measured in kilobytes per second for a CD-ROM drive, in bits per second for a modem, and in megabytes per second for a hard drive. 2. Data Terminal Ready. A signal from a communications program to a modem, which means the program is loaded and ready to run. The modem’s TR (Terminal Ready) light goes on when the modem has received this signal.

DTS

(Digital Theater Systems). A digital home theater audio format developed by Digital Theater Systems Inc.

DTV

Desktop Video. Production of videos with a personal computer; an emerging technology.

DTVC

Desktop Video Conferencing.

DUA

Directory User Agent. The program used by the directory user to access an X.500 Directory Service.

dual band

A feature of a wireless phone that allows the handset to operate using either the 800 MHz cellular or the 1900 MHz PCS frequencies.

dual boot

A configuration that makes it possible to start a computer with one of two different operating systems.

Dual Inline Memory Module

(DIMM). A way of adding RAM to the computer. DIMMs normally have 168 pins. See also SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module).

dual mode

A feature of a wireless phone that allows it to operate in both analog and digital mode.

dual tone modulation frequency

(DTMF) The tones on a push-button telephone.

dual-host gateway

A firewall architecture in which all information exchanged between the Internet and an organization's internal network must pass through the firewall.

Dublin Core

(DC). A project to create a structure for categorizing electronic documents in a similar way to the sorting of library books in a card catalogue. The Dublin Core schema has fifteen fields that give all the basic information about an electronic document, including the title, subject, creator, publisher, and date of creation. Describing documents in this way will make it possible to use search engines more effectively. See also XML, RDF, and metadata.

dumb terminal

A screen and keyboard with no intelligence of its own, which is connected a main computer, and used for simple data entry and retrieval.

dump

1. A large mass of data transferred from one place to another without any particular organization, as in wholesale backup copying of files from disk to tape. 2. A printout of the byte-by-byte contents of some part of a computer's memory, shown in hexadecimal or character form.

dumped

Involuntarily cut off from a network by carrier failure.

duodecillion

10^39 (U.S. and Canada); 10^72 (Europe).

dupe killer

A program that will protect e-mail users against mail bombs by automatically eliminating duplicate copies of e-mails.

duplex

In a communications system, the ability to simultaneously transmit and receive.

duplicate file name

A DOS error message which means that you are renaming a file to a filename that is already in use. It may also mean that the file you are renaming is being used by someone else on the network. The other user must close the file in order for you to rename it.

DVD

Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc. An optical storage medium which has greater capacity and bandwidth than a CD. DVDs can be used for multimedia and data storage. A DVD has the capacity to store a full-length film with up to 133 minutes of high quality video in MPEG-2 format, plus audio.

DVD-ROM

Digital Video Disc-Read Only Memory. A disc like a CD-ROM that has more storage (4.7 gigabytes) and can provide digital video. DVD-ROMs with 17GB storage will soon be available.

DVD+ReWritable

A DVD-based storage format similar to CD-ReWritable (CD-RW).

DVI

Digital Video Interactive. A compression/decompression technique developed by RCA, Intel, and GTE that makes it possible to store digital graphics, audio, and full-motion video on a CD-ROM, and to decompress and display these forms of data singly or in combination.

DVMRP

Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (Internet).

Dvorak keyboard

A keyboard designed to make typing more efficient, using a different arrangement of letters than the QWERTY keyboard so that the letters used most frequently are all together on the main line of keys. The problem with converting to the Dvorak keyboard is that it would require all typists to relearn how to type.

DWDM

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. A process by which different colors, hence different wavelengths, of an optical signal are multiplexed onto one strand of optical fiber. Due to the unique wavelength of each signal, simultaneous transmissions of different types of signals are possible. This process has the potential of greatly increasing the capacity one optical fiber can carry.

DXF

Drawing eXchange Format.

DYM

Day Year Month

dynamic

Performed while a program is running.

Dynamic Data Exchange

(DDE). A Windows 3 protocol that allows communication between applications so that when a document is updated in one application, related information will be updated in other documents linked to it in this way.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

(DHCP). Windows NT Server software that assigns an IP address to each node in a network.

dynamic HTML

(DHTML). HTML documents with dynamic content; the three components of DHTML pages are HTML, JavaScript, and cascading style sheets. The three components are tied together with DOM, the Document Object Model.

Dynamic Link Library

A plethora of information that is used by a windows application. Also, it provides specific functions through a static or dynamic link.

dynamic random access memory

(DRAM). A type of computer memory that is stored in capacitors on a chip and requires a refresh signal to be sent to it periodically. Most computers have DRAM chips, because they provide a lot of memory at a low cost.

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