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There are 293 names in this directory beginning with the letter E.
e-business

Business conducted using electronic media such as the Internet, other computer networks, wireless transmissions, etc.

e-cash

A form of electronic funds transfer via the Internet; several systems are now being tested.

e-commerce

Electronic commerce; the use of computers and electronic communications in business transactions. E-commerce may include the use of electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic money exchange, Internet advertising, Web sites, online databases, computer networks, and point-of-sale (POS) computer systems.

e-doctor

A computer virus engineer, whose job is to provide real-time elimination of computer virus infections as soon as they appear.

e-learning

Taking a course or training via the Internet; usually the World Wide Web.

e-mail

Electronic mail. A service that sends messages on computers via local or global networks.

e-mail address

The address that gives the source or destination of an e-mail message.

e-scam

A scam, or fraud, perpetrated using electronic communications.

e-tailers

Electronic retailers; for example, retailers who do business on the Internet.

e-zine

An electronic magazine. Many ezines are online versions of print magazines.

EAD

Encoded Archival Description. An SGML document type definition (DTD) for archival finding aids used by the U.S. Library of Congress and other research institutions. Archival finding aids are metadata tools such as indexes, guides, and inventories. Standardizing the format of these tools makes it easier to display them on the Internet or other networks.

EARN

European Academic Research Network. A network of universities and research labs in Europe that uses BITNET technology. It merged with RARE; the combination of EARN and RARE is called TERENA.

Easter egg

A secret message hidden somewhere in a program, that can be revealed by entering some unusual combination of commands, such as pulling down a menu while holding the command and shift keys. Computer users can stumble upon Easter eggs by accident, or hear about them through rumors. The messages can be jokes, political statements, music, or pictures; often they are credits for the developers of the software.

EasyLink

An online service from AT&T EasyLink Services in Parsippany, New Jersey that offers electronic mail, electronic data interchange, Telex, and access to databases like Knight-Ridder and CompuServe.

EATA

Enhanced AT bus Attachment.

EBC

EISA Bus Controller.

EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. An 8-bit binary code for larger IBM computers in which each byte represents one alphanumeric character or two decimal digits. Control commands are also represented. EBCDIC is similar to ASCII code, which is used on most other computers.

EBONE

European Backbone. A European network backbone service.

EC

Error Control. A modem status signal indicated by a light on the modem, which means the function that tests for errors in the transmission is active.

ECC

1. Error Check Code. 2. Error Correction Code. 3. Error Checking and Correction. Same as EDAC.

echo cancellation

Removing unwanted echoes from the signal on a telephone line.

Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation

The company that designed and built UNIVAC I, the first commercially successful computer. J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly first developed ENIAC, the world's first large-scale, general-purpose digital computer, in 1946. Eckert-Mauchly was acquired by Remington Rand in 1950. UNIVAC was introduced in 1951. It filled half a garage; about 40 of the computers were sold. In 1952, UNIVAC made history by predicting the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower as U.S. President before the polls closed.

ECM

Error Correcting Memory. RAM which includes error detection and correction circuits.

ECMA

European Computer Manufacturers Association. An organization founded in 1961 by leaders of European computer companies that helped with prestandardization work for OSI. In 1994, the organization changed its name to ECMA International.

ECNE

Enterprise Certified NetWare Engineer (Novell). A Certified NetWare Engineer with additional experience in wide area networks.

Econet

A network that serves individuals and organizations working for preservation of the environment, and promotes the use of electronic networking for better communications.

ECP

1. Enhanced Capabilities Port. A high-speed enhanced parallel port from Microsoft. 2. Excessive Cross Posting. Posting the same message to many Usenet groups, including those where the subject is not relevant; also called spamming.

ECPA

Electronic Communications Privacy Act. A law which prohibits phone tapping, interception of e-mail, and other privacy violations except under special law enforcement situations usually requiring a warrant.

ECRC

European Computer-Industry Research Centre GmbH. A European research organization located in Munich, Germany, that is involved in the development of information processing technology.

ED

Extra-high Density or Extra-Density. The designation for a 3.5″ floppy disk that has a 2.88M storage capacity.

EDAC

Error Detection And Correction. Methods for detecting and correcting errors in transmitted or stored data, such as parity bits and the cyclic redundancy check.

EDC

Error Detection and Correction. Methods for detecting and correcting errors in transmitted or stored data, such as parity bits and the cyclic redundancy check.

EDGARs

Electronic Data Gathering Analysis & Retrieval system.

EDGE

Enhanced Data GSM Environment: a faster version of the GSM wireless service, EDGE is designed to deliver data at rates up to 384 Kbps, enabling the delivery of multimedia and other broadband applications to mobile phone and computer users.

EDI

Electronic Data Interchange. Conversion of a transmitted document into a format readable by the receiving computer. Also called Electronic Document Interchange.

Edison, Thomas

An American inventor (1847-1931) who made important discoveries in electric lighting, telegraphy, phonography, and photography.

edit

To make changes in a file.

EDLC

Ethernet Data Link Control. A set of rules used by computers on an Ethernet to ensure an orderly exchange of data.

EDO DRAM

Extended Data Out Dynamic Random Access Memory. A fast dynamic RAM chip that is often used with Pentium processors.

EDO RAM

Extended Data Out Random Access Memory. Same as Extended Data Out Dynamic Random Access Memory. A memory chip, used mostly with Pentium processors, that accesses data faster by overlapping cycles of data output.

EDP

(Electronic Data Processing). Data processing using electronic machines (computers).

EDTV

Extended Definition TV. Television in a wide-screen format.

edutainment

Material (such as an interactive CD-ROM) that is both educational and entertaining.

EE

Electrical Engineer.

EEC

Extended Error Correction.

EEMS

Enhanced Expanded Memory Specifications.

EEPROM

Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. A memory chip that can be recorded or erased electrically, but that does not lose its content when electrical power is removed. It is called ROM even though it can be recorded, because it takes a lot longer to record than RAM and is only practical for recording data which is not changed often.

EFF

Electronic Frontier Foundation. A nonprofit organization established to protect public access to online resources, including freedom of expression and right to privacy. EFF is concerned with the impact of computers on society and the ethical, legal, and social issues resulting from the information revolution.

EFM

Eight to Fourteen Modulation. In magnetic media, a byte commonly has 8 bits. Optical media such as CD-ROM discs uses a 14-bit byte, a modification necessary because of the way data is stored and read with lasers, using the pits (indentations) and lands (spaces between indentations) on the disc. In transferring from magnetic to optical media, the 8-bit byte has to be modulated to a 14-bit byte. When the computer reads the CD-ROM, an interface card demodulates the 14- bit optical code back to 8-bit code.

EFTS

Electronic Funds Transfer System. A system for transferring money from one account to another via computers.

EG

Evil Grin. Also

EGA

Enhanced Graphics Adapter. A graphics adapter card that improved on the CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) and was superseded by the VGA (Video Graphics Adapter).

EGCS

Extended Graphic Character Set. A graphic character set in which each character is represented by two bytes.

EGP

Exterior Gateway Protocol. A protocol which gives TCP/IP routing information to a network's exterior gateways: the gateways (routers) that connect the network to other independent networks.

EHF

Extra High Frequency. Electromagnetic frequencies in the range of 30 to 300 gigaherz.

EIA

Electronics Industries Association. An organization which establishes Recommended Standards (RS) for hardware devices and their interfaces. RS-232 is a well-known standard for transmitting serial data by wire.

EIA-232D

Electronics Industries Association -232D. The official designation for RS-232 (Recommended Standard-232), an Electronics Industries Association standard asynchronous serial line which is used commonly for modems, computer terminals, and serial printers. See RS-232.

EIDE

Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics. A hardware interface which is faster than IDE, allows more memory, and can connect up to four devices (such as hard drives, tape drives, and CD-ROM drives) to the computer.

Eight to Fourteen Modulation

(EFM). In magnetic media, a byte commonly has 8 bits. Optical media such as CD-ROM discs uses a 14-bit byte, a modification necessary because of the way data is stored and read with lasers, using the pits (indentations) and lands (spaces between indentations) on the disc. In transferring from magnetic to optical media, the 8-bit byte has to be modulated to a 14-bit byte. When the computer reads the CD-ROM, an interface card demodulates the 14- bit optical code back to 8-bit code.

EISA

Extended Industry Standard Architecture. A PC bus that extends the ISA bus from 16 bits to 32 bits, but can still be used to plug in ISA expansion cards.

eject button

The button that is pressed to eject a floppy disk or CD-ROM out of a drive.

ELAN

Emulated Local Area Network.

Electrically Erasable Programmable Read

(EEPROM). A memory chip that can be recorded or erased electrically, but that does not lose its content when electrical power is removed. It is called ROM even though it can be recorded, because it takes a lot longer to record than RAM and is only practical for recording data which is not changed often.

electricity

Electric current, caused by the flow of electrons, which can be used as a source of power.

electrode

A device that collects or emits electric charge and controls the movement of electrons.

electromagnetic field

(EMF). A field of force, produced by electric charges and currents, which has both an electric and a magnetic component and contains electromagnetic energy. The properties of electromagnetic fields were outlined by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1865.

electromagnetic radiation

(EMR). Energy in the form of waves which have both an electric and a magnetic component. Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, light waves, infrared, ultraviolet, X rays, etc. Computer display screens emit low-level electromagnetic radiation, which is suspected to increase the incidence of cancer, birth defects, and miscarriages. Newer displays emit reduced levels of radiation. The Swedish government established standards (called MPR) for acceptable levels of EMR in display terminals.

electromagnetic spectrum

The entire range of electromagnetic radiation; it includes frequencies of 10^23 cycles per second to 0 cycles per second, and wavelengths from 10^-13 centimeter to infinity. From the lowest frequency to the highest (or the longest wavelength to the shortest) the spectrum includes electric current, heat, radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light (colors), ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, gamma rays, and cosmic-ray photons.

electromagnetic wave

A wave that propagates by periodic variations in electromagnetic field intensity and that is within the electromagnetic spectrum.

electromagnetism

Magnetism created by a current of electricity.

electron

A subatomic particle having a negative charge, which circles the nucleus of an atom.

electron tube

An electronic device with a sealed glass or metal container through which a controlled flow of electrons is directed through a vacuum or a gaseous medium. An electron tube containing a vacuum is called a vacuum tube; the first computers used vacuum tubes as on/off switches to indicate the 0s and 1s in digital computations.

electronic book

A book that has been converted to digital form and can be read on a computer, usually via network services or CD-ROM. Electronic books can expand on print media by adding hypertext links, search and cross-reference functions, and multimedia.

Electronic Check Project

A team organized by the Financial Services Technology Consortium (FSTC) to design protocols for E-commerce. The Electronic Check Project is responsible for Signed Document Markup Language (SDML) and the Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS).

electronic commerce

(EC) Using computer networks to conduct business, including buying and selling online, electronic funds transfer, business communications, and using computers to access business information resources.

Electronic Communications Privacy Act

(ECPA). A law which prohibits phone tapping, interception of e-mail, and other privacy violations except under special law enforcement situations usually requiring a warrant.

Electronic Data Interchange

(EDI). Conversion of a transmitted document into a format readable by the receiving computer. Also called Electronic Document Interchange.

electronic data processing

(EDP). Data processing using electronic machines (computers).

Electronic Frontier Foundation

(EFF) A nonprofit organization established to protect public access to online resources, including freedom of expression and right to privacy. EFF is concerned with the impact of computers on society and the ethical, legal, and social issues resulting from the information revolution.

electronic magazine

A publication which is in digital form. Electronic magazines can be on the World Wide Web or other online services, on floppy disk or CD-ROM, or sent by e-mail. Also called an e-zine.

electronic mail

E-mail. A service that sends messages on computers via local or global networks.

electronic mail address

The address that indicates the source or destination of an electronic mail message.

electronic mailing address

(EMA). The address for electronic mail (email ); for example, [email protected]

electronic mall

A Web site (or collection of sites) on the Internet offering products and services for sale, similar to a real-life shopping mall.

Electronic Music Management System

(EMMS). An open-architecture system developed by IBM for the preparation and distribution of all forms of digital content, including music. Some of the major publishers in the music industry support EMMS for distributing full-length, full-quality music albums to Internet users. However, EMMS requires longer downloading times than the popular MP3 format.

www.epic.org).

electronic publishing

Producing documents to be viewed on a computer screen, which may never be printed on paper. Electronically published documents may be on CD-ROM or floppy disk, or available via computer networks such as the Internet, and in addition to text and illustrations, may include video and sound clips, animated graphics, and hypertext links.

electronic serial Nnumber

(ESN). The unique number of a cellular phone that identifies it to the system for placing and receiving calls.

electronic storefront

A virtual store, usually a Web site, where products are advertised and online ordering may be available.

electronic whiteboard

The equivalent of a blackboard, but on a computer screen. A whiteboard allows one or more users to draw on the screen while others on the network watch, and can be used for instruction the same way a blackboard is used in a classroom.

electronics

A branch of physics that studies the behavior and effects of electrons, and the technology of the controlled conduction of electrons and other charge carriers.

Electronics Industries Association

(EIA) An organization which establishes Recommended Standards (RS) for hardware devices and their interfaces. RS-232 is a well-known standard for transmitting serial data by wire.

electrophotographic

Refers to the printing technique of copy machines and laser printers, in which a kind of dry ink called toner adheres to electrically charged areas of a photosensitive drum, and then is transferred to paper. The areas of the drum that are charged depend on which areas are exposed by the light source.

electrostatic

Relating to static electricity, or nonmoving electric charge.

elegant

Simple, graceful, yet effective; demonstrating the highest efficiency and economy of design. For example, in mathematics, an elegant proof; in computer programming, an elegant program.

ELF

Extremely Low Frequency. Electromagnetic frequencies below 3 kiloherz. ELF radiations from computer monitors have caused health concerns, but their effects are not definitely known. The Swedish guidelines called MPR II define acceptable levels; some monitors are designed to meet these guidelines.

elite

A typewriter type that prints 12 characters per inch (also called 12 pitch). On a computer, the closest to elite type would be 10-point Courier.

em dash

A long dash.

em space

A typographic unit of measure which is the same as the width of a capital M in a given font.

EMA

Electronic Mailing Address, or E-mail address.

EMACS

(Short for Editing MACroS). A screen editor used for writing programs on UNIX and other systems.

Emall

Similar to the traditional shopping mall, an emall is a grouping of many online vendors on one site.

embedded command

A command written within text or lines of code.

embedded hyperlink

A hyperlink that is incorporated into a line of text.

embedded link

A hyperlink in the middle of a line of text.

embedded object

An object, such as a graphic, which has been placed in a document from another file.

embedded system

A combination of hardware and software which together form a component of a larger machine. An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine. An embedded system is designed to run on its own without human intervention, and may be required to respond to events in real time.

EMF

Electro-Magnetic Field. A field of force, produced by electric charges and currents, which has both an electric and a magnetic component and contains electromagnetic energy. The properties of electromagnetic fields were outlined by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1865.

EMH

Expedited Message Handling.

EMI

Electro Magnetic Interference. Electromagnetic waves that come from electrical and electronic devices.

EMM

Expanded Memory Manager. A program to manage expanded memory.

EMMS

Electronic Music Management System. An open-architecture system developed by IBM for the preparation and distribution of all forms of digital content, including music. Some of the major publishers in the music industry support EMMS for distributing full-length, full-quality music albums to Internet users. However, EMMS requires longer downloading times than the popular MP3 format.

emoticon

A typewritten picture of a facial expression, used in e-mail and when communicating on the Internet, to indicate emotion.

emoticons

Typewritten pictures of facial expressions, used in e-mail and when communicating on the Internet, to indicate emotion. They are also called smileys :-) . See the emoticon list in this dictionary for examples.

EMP

1. Excessive Mass Posting, or Excessive Multiple Posting, on Usenet ; also called spam. 2.Electro Magnetic Pulse.

EMR

1. Electromagnetic Radiation. Energy in the form of waves which have both an electric and a magnetic component. Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, light waves, infrared, ultraviolet, X rays, etc. Computer display screens emit low-level electromagnetic radiation, which is suspected to increase the incidence of cancer, birth defects, and miscarriages. Newer displays emit reduced levels of radiation.The Swedish government established standards (called MPR) for acceptable levels of EMR in display terminals. 2. Enhanced Metafile Record.

EMS

Expanded Memory Specification. A way of expanding DOS Random Access Memory from one megabyte to 32 megabytes.

emulate

To pretend to be something else. A computer system or program can emulate another computer system in order to run its programs, or to make a network connection between terminals.

emulation

Emulation is said to happen when a system, or a program, performs in the same way as another system. A computer can emulate another type of computer in order to run its programs. Sometimes terminal emulation is necessary in order for one computer to make a network connection with another.

emulation mode

The operational state of a computer when it is emulating another system in order to run a foreign program.

emulator

A hardware or software device that performs like something else; for example, a printer that emulates a Hewlett Packard printer so a computer can communicate with it through a Hewlett Packard printer driver, or a Macintosh that emulates a PC so it can run PC programs. In communications, terminal emulators allow computers to connect with different kinds of networks.

en dash

A short dash, longer than a hyphen but shorter than an em dash.

en space

A typographic unit of measure which is the same as one-half the width of a capital M in a given font.

Encapsulated PostScript

(EPS). A graphics file format that can be used with many different computers and printers. EPS files can be imported into most desktop publishing software.

Encarta

A multimedia encyclopedia from Microsoft, available on CD-ROM.

encipher

To encrypt data for privacy.

Encoded Archival Description

(EAD). An SGML document type definition (DTD) for archival finding aids used by the U.S. Library of Congress and other research institutions. Archival finding aids are metadata tools such as indexes, guides, and inventories. Standardizing the format of these tools makes it easier to display them on the Internet or other networks.

encoding

1. Encryption. 2. Conversion of data into digital form; for example, converting an analog sound signal into digital data for storing on a CD.

encrypt

To encode data so that only someone with a key can read it.

encryption

Putting data into a secret code so it is unreadable except by authorized users. Also see data encryption.

end key

The key on the keyboard which, by itself or in combination with other keys, can be used to move the cursor to the next word, the end of the current line, the bottom of the screen, or the end of the document.

end system

An OSI system which can communicate through all seven layers of OSI protocols; an Internet host.

end system to intermediate system

(ES-IS). An OSI protocol for address resolution and router detection.

end-user

The person who will ultimately use a product, distinguished from all the people involved in creating or promoting it.

end-user license

A license that gives a user right to use a particular kind of software and specifies the conditions under which it may be used; for example, how many copies may be made, whether or not it may be distributed to other users, whether it can be modified by the user.

End-User License Agreement

The legal agreement between the purchaser of software and the software manufacturer. An EULA covers restricted use, terms of distribution and resale of the software.

ENDEC

ENcoder/DECoder.

endnotes

Reference notes listed at the end of a document.

Energy Star

A set of guidelines created by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to encourage more energy-efficient personal computers. A computer that displays the Energy Star logo automatically goes into low-power mode if several minutes elapse without anyone touching the keyboard; in this mode it uses less than 30 watts of power.

Englehart, Douglas C.

Inventor of the computer mouse, the hand-held input device commonly used with personal computers.

Enhanced Graphics Adapter

EGA. A graphics adapter card that improved on the CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) and was superseded by the VGA (Video Graphics Adapter).

Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics

(EIDE). A hardware interface which is faster than IDE, allows more memory, and can connect up to four devices (such as hard drives, tape drives, and CD-ROM drives) to the computer.

enhancement

A change that makes a version of software or hardware better than the previous version.

ENIAC

Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer. The first digital electronic computer, developed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert during World War II at the University of Pennsylvania and released in 1946. ENIAC was used for scientific research and weather prediction, among other things.

Enigma

An electric rotor cipher machine, invented in the 1920s, that was used to generate codes for the Germans during World War II.

ENQ

Enquiry. ASCII character 5 (control E). A request for a response, sent from one communications station to another; an enquiry as to whether someone at the receiving terminal is available to communicate.

ENSS

Exterior Nodal Switching System (Internet).

enter

The key on a numeric keypad that enters a calculation and gets the result. On some alphanumeric keyboards, the return key is called “enter.”

enterprise network

A network for a large business enterprise. This kind of network may comprise a number of local area networks which have to interface with each other as well as a central database management system and many client workstations. The design and management of an enterprise network can be very complex.

enterprise resource planning

(ERP). 1. The planning and management of all the resources in an enterprise. 2. A multi-module software system that supports enterprise resource planning. An ERP system typically includes a relational database and applications for managing purchasing, inventory, personnel, customer service, shipping, financial planning, and other important aspects of the business.

environment

The hardware/software configuration of a computer, which may refer to its human interface, networking interface, programming tools, database type, etc. The environment determines what can be done with the computer; for example, within a spreadsheet program, the computer does not respond to the commands used in a word processing program, or may respond differently.

EOA

End Of Address. A control character that indicates the end of an address, which may contain non-text characters.

EOB

End Of Block. A code indicating the end of a block of data.

EOE

End Of Extent. The end of the disk area allocated for a file.

EOF

End Of File.

EOJ

End of Job.

EOL

1. End Of List. 2. End of Line.

EOM

End of Message.

EOP

End Of Program.

EOR

Exclusive OR (See also XOR).

EOT

End Of Transmission. ASCII character 4, indicating a transmission is over. 2. End Of Text. 3. End Of Tape (used on magnetic tapes).

www.epic.org).

EPLD

Electrically Programmable Logic Device.

epoch

The starting time and date from which an operating system's clock is measured. The epoch is different on different computers.

EPOP

Electronic Point of Purchase. Computerized checkout systems in stores, which may use electronic cash registers, bar code scanners, and a central computer that records transactions.

EPOW

Emergency Power Off Warning.

EPP

Enhanced Parallel Port. A high-speed transfer parallel port that can support several devices in a daisy-chain formation.

EPROM

Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. A reusable memory chip that can be programmed electrically and erased by exposure to ultraviolet light. (Also called Electrically Programmable ROM).

EPS

Encapsulated PostScript. A graphics file format that can be used with many different computers and printers. EPS files can be imported into most desktop publishing software.

EPSF

Encapsulated PostScript File.

EQ

Equal to: = .

equalizer

A device which can boost or cut specific frequencies, to compensate for loss and distortion in signal transmission.

equals

ASCII character 61: = . The quantities on either side of the equals sign are equal to each other.

equation

A statement using an equals sign in which the expression on the left side of the equals sign is mathematically or logically equal to the expression on the right side; for example, A + B = C. Equation statements are used in programming to assign values to the variables.

ER model

(Entity Relationship Model)
ER model is a conceptual data model that views the real world as entities and relationships. A basic component of the model is the Entity-Relationship diagram which is used to visually represents data objects.Dr. Peter Chen's original paper on the Entity-Relationship model (ER model) is one of the most cited papers in the computer software field.

ER model

(Entity Relationship Model)
ER model is a conceptual data model that views the real world as entities and relationships. A basic component of the model is the Entity-Relationship diagram which is used to visually represents data objects.Dr. Peter Chen’s original paper on the Entity-Relationship model (ER model) is one of the most cited papers in the computer software field.

Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

(EPROM). A reusable memory chip that can be programmed electrically and erased by exposure to ultraviolet light.

erasable storage

A kind of memory that can be erased and rewritten.

erase

To remove data from memory.

erase head

The device that erases magnetic tape before recording new data.

eraser

A tool in paint and photo editing programs that acts just like an eraser that is used on paper. The eraser tool is used by dragging it with the mouse.

ERCIM

European Research Consortium on Informatics and Mathematics. A group of European research organizations interested in cooperative information technology research.

ergonomics

(From Greek, “the study of work.”) The science of designing working environments and the tools in them for maximum work efficiency and maximum worker health and safety. An ergonomically designed workplace has proper light to reduce eyestrain, chairs that support good posture, lowest possible exposure of workers to undesirable radiations, etc.

ERIC

Educational Resources Information Center. An organization that provides online educational resources.

erlang

An international unit created to measure telephone use. One erlang is the equivalent of one caller talking for one hour on one telephone.

ERLL

Enhanced Run Length Limited.

EROM

Erasable Read Only Memory.

ERP

(Enterprise Resource Planning). 1. The planning and management of all the resources in an enterprise. 2. A multi-module software system that supports enterprise resource planning. An ERP system typically includes a relational database and applications for managing purchasing, inventory, personnel, customer service, shipping, financial planning, and other important aspects of the business.

ERR

Error.

error

1. A difference between a computed, observed, or measured value and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value. 2. A programming mistake which may cause a fault.

error correcting memory

(ECM). RAM which includes error detection and correction circuits.

error detection and correction

(EDAC). Methods for detecting and correcting errors in transmitted or stored data, such as parity bits and the cyclic redundancy check.

error message

A message that appears on the computer screen to let the user know the computer cannot carry out an instruction, or there is some other problem.

ES

Expert System. A computer system that is programmed to imitate the problem-solving procedures that a human expert makes. For example, in a medical system the user might enter data like the patient's symptoms, lab reports, etc., and derive from the computer a possible diagnosis. The success of an expert system depends on the quality of the data provided to the computer, and the rules the computer has been programmed with for making deductions from that data.

ES-IS

End System to Intermediate System. An OSI protocol for address resolution and router detection.

ESA

Enterprise Systems Architecture. IBM enhancements for mainframe computers to increase virtual memory and manage it effectively.

ESC

1. (Escape). ASCII character 27, the escape key. A key whose effect depends on what software or mode is being used. It is sometimes used in combination with other keys. In many programs hitting the escape key takes you out of where you are and back to where you were immediately before. 2. Execution Sequence Control.

escape key

(Esc). ASCII character 27. A key whose effect depends on what software or mode is being used. It is sometimes used in combination with other keys. In many programs hitting the escape key takes you out of where you are and back to where you were immediately before.

ESCM

Extended Services Communications Manager (IBM).

ESN

(Electronic Serial Number). The unique number of a cellular phone that identifies it to the system for placing and receiving calls.

ETB

End of Transmission Block. ASCII character 23, indicating a section of a transmission is ended.

Ethernet

The most popular type of local area network, which sends its communications through radio frequency signals carried by a coaxial cable. Each computer checks to see if another computer is transmitting and waits its turn to transmit. If two computers accidentally transmit at the same time and their messages collide, they wait and send again in turn. Software protocols used by Ethernet systems vary, but include Novell Netware and TCP/IP.

Ethernet address

The physical address of an Ethernet controller board, expressed as a 48-bit number in hexadecimal notation.

Ethernet card

A network adapter that enables a computer to connect to an Ethernet. It is a printed circuit board that is plugged into the computers on the Ethernet or may be built into their motherboards. The Ethernet cards are connected to each other by cables.

Ethernet meltdown

A network meltdown on an Ethernet.

EtherTalk

Software from Apple Computer that adapts a Macintosh to an Ethernet network.

ETX

End of text.

Eudora

Electronic mail software from Qualcomm, Inc. for TCP/IP connections. It is available for Macintosh, OS/2, Microsoft Windows, and Windows NT.

Eudora Light

A bare bones version of the Eudora electronic mail program, distributed as freeware for PC and Macintosh.

EUnet

European UNIX Network, a major European Internet service provider.

eunet

Top-level newsgroup category for a European Usenet newsgroup.

European Academic Research Network

(EARN). A network of universities and research labs in Europe that uses BITNET technology. It merged with RARE; the combination of EARN and RARE is called TERENA.

European Backbone

(EBONE). A European network backbone service.

European Computer Manufacturers Associat

(ECMA ). An organization of computer manufacturers that helped with prestandardization work for OSI.

European Computer-Industry Research Cent

(ECRC). A European research organization located in Munich, Germany, that is involved in the development of information processing technology.

European Research Consortium on Informat

(ERCIM). A group of European research organizations interested in cooperative information technology research.

European UNIX Network

Also called EUnet; a major European Internet service provider.

European Workshop for Open Systems.

(EWOS). The OSI Implementors Workshop in Europe.

EurOpen

Formerly European UNIX Users Group (EUUG).

EUUG

European UNIX Users Group. Now called EurOpen.

EVE

Extensible VAX Editor.

even parity

A form of error checking in transmitted data in which a parity bit is 1 when there is an even number of 1 bits in the byte.

event

An occurence that is significant to a program, and which may call for a response from the program. See event-driven program.

event-driven program

A program which waits for events to occur and responds to them, instead of going through a prearranged series of actions. An example of an event would be a user clicking a mouse somewhere on the screen, or entering a keyboard command.

EVGA

Extended Video Graphics Adapter.

eWorld

A consumer and family-oriented online service from Cupertino, California.

EWOS

European Workshop for Open Systems. The OSI Implementors Workshop in Europe.

exa-

The SI prefix for quintillion (10^18). It can also mean 2^60.

exabyte

2^60 = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes; same as 1024 petabytes. The prefix exa- can also mean quintillion (10^18).

exajoule

A quintillion (10^18) joules. See exa-.

Excel

A popular spreadsheet program from Microsoft, available for Macintosh and PC.

excessive cross posting

(ECP). Posting the same message to many Usenet groups, including those where the subject is not relevant; also called spamming.

excessive mass posting

(EMP). Excessive posting to many Usenet groups at once, including to groups where the subject is not relevant; also called spam.

excessive multiple posting

(EMP). Excessive posting to many Usenet groups at once, including to groups where the subject is not relevant; also called spam.

exchange

The first three digits of a local phone number, not including area code.

Excite

An Internet search engine.

excl

Exclamation point, ASCII character 33.

exclamation point

ASCII character 33: ! Also called bang, excl, and exclamation mark.

exclusive NOR

In Boolean logic, an exclusive NOR is an operation that is true if both inputs are the same.

Exclusive OR

(XOR). An exclusive OR is true if one of the inputs is true, but not both. “A XOR B” means “A or B, but not both.”

EXE

An executable binary file, marked with the .EXE filename extension in MS-DOS, Windows, OS/2, and VAX/VMS.

EXE2BIN

Program used to convert an .EXE file to binary format .COM file.

Executable

A program that a computer can directly execute.

execute

To run a program. A computer has a fetch cycle, when it is locating its next instruction, and an execute cycle, when it is carrying out the instruction.

execution

For a computer, execution is the process of carrying out an instruction given it.

executive size

A common size of paper, 7.25" x 10.5", used for stationery in the United States.

exhibition

A public showing of the latest developments in computer technology, in which different companies sponsor booths to show their products. Also called a trade show.

exit

To leave the mode or program the computer is in.

expand

To decompress a compressed file.

expanded view

A view of a computer document that shows all the text; or, a way of viewing the computer's files that shows not only the main directories or folders, but also the subdirectories/subfolders and the files within them. The opposite of collapsed view.

expansion

1. The process of returning compressed data to its original form. 2. See expansion board, expansion card, expansion slot, expansion bus, expansion unit, memory expansion.

expansion board

A printed circuit board, also called an expansion card, which can be plugged into the computer's expansion slot to add a new feature; for example, a expansion bus

A series of slots into which expansion cards can be plugged.

expansion card

A printed circuit board, also called an expansion board, which can be plugged into the computer's expansion slot to add a new feature; for example, a modem, higher-quality display or sound.

expansion slot

A socket on the motherboard for plugging in an expansion card. The more expansion slots a computer has, the more features can be added.

expansion unit

A unit that can be attached to the system unit of a personal computer; for example, to add storage space or processing capability.

expert system

A computer system that is programmed to imitate the problem-solving procedures that a human expert makes. For example, in a medical system the user might enter data like the patient's symptoms, lab reports, etc., and derive from the computer a possible diagnosis. The success of an expert system depends on the quality of the data provided to the computer, and the rules the computer has been programmed with for making deductions from that data.

expireware

Software with a built-in expiration time, either set for a certain date or a certain number of uses.

Explorer

The Windows 95 equivalent to File Manager in earlier Windows formats; used for exploring directories, files, and menus.

ExploreZip worm

A computer bug spread by e-mail that led to a shutdown of many corporate computer systems by infecting, damaging or destroying files. It is also called a Trojan horse because it gains entry by disguising itself as a friendly e-mail message (Hi (name inserted) I received your e-mail, and I shall reply ASAP. Till then, take a look at the zipped docs.). Users who receive such a message should delete it without clicking on the attached file, which will launch the virus and then destroy Microsoft Outlook, Express and possibly other e-mail related documents.

exponent

A superscript value written to the right of a number or mathematical expression which indicates the number of times the expression is multiplied by itself; for example, 23 is 2 x 2 x 2; 10^3 is 10 x 10 x 10. Also called a power; 2 x 2 x 2 is 2 to the 3rd power. Floating point numbers are indicated with a mantissa and a power of 10; for example, 1,400 is 14 x 10^2 ; 14,000 is 14 x 10^3.

export

To convert a file from one application format to another, or to move data out of one file with the purpose of importing it into another file.

extended ASCII

Additional ASCII characters, 128 through 255. Extended ASCII symbols may include foreign language accents, ligatures, etc. but are not always the same. For Windows, there is a standard set of extended characters 128-255 defined by ANSI.

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchang

(EBCDIC). An 8-bit binary code for larger IBMs in which each byte represents one alphanumeric character or two decimal digits. Control commands are also represented. EBCDIC is similar to ASCII code, which is used on most other computers.

Extended Data Out Dynamic RAM

EDO DRAM. A fast dynamic RAM chip that is often used with Pentium processors.

Extended Definition TV

(EDTV). Television in a wide-screen format.

extended graphic character set

(EGCS). A graphic character set in which each character is represented by two bytes.

Extended Graphics Array

(XGA). A super VGA card from IBM which can provide up to 1024 x 768 pixels and 65,536 colors in its images (resolutions available depend on the combination of XGA card and monitor).

Extended Industry Standard Architecture

EISA. A PC bus that extends the ISA bus from 16 bits to 32 bits, but can still be used to plug in ISA expansion cards.

Extended Technology

XT. The first IBM PC to have a hard disk. It came out in 1983. It had an Intel 8088 microprocessor, 128KB of RAM, and a 10MB hard drive.

extensible

Able to be extended or expanded. Extensible programming languages allow the programmer to customize: to add new functions and modify the behavior of existing functions.

Extensible Forms Description Language

(XFDL). An open protocol for creating, filling in, and reading complex business forms and legal contracts on the Internet and intranets. XFDL, based on XML, was developed because HTML is not suitable for representing auditable business forms. Though a form has both questions and answers, a form in HTML can only store the answers that the user entered. Using XFDL, the form’s questions and answers can be stored in a single file that can then be digitally signed.

Extensible Linking Language

(XLL). Specifications for XML linking and addressing mechanisms. XLL has been subdivided into two components: XLink and XPointer. XLink governs how links may be inserted into XML documents, whether they are simple unidirectional hyperlinks as in HTML or more sophisticated two-way, multidirectional, and typed links. XPointer defines a language to be used with XLink for addressing internal elements of XML documents.

Extensible Log Format

(XLF). A log format based on XML, designed to be extensible and universal.

eXtensible Markup Language

(XML). A new Internet language that will make the World Wide Web smarter. HTML is a markup language, consisting of text interspersed with a few basic formatting tags. XML is a metalanguage, containing a set of rules for constructing other markup languages. With XML, people can make up their own tags, which expands the amount and kinds of information that can be provided about the data held in documents. Some of the advantages are: search engines will be able to zoom in on one particular meaning of a word; new languages can be employed that will allow musical notation and mathematical and chemical symbols to be used as easily as text; e-commerce will become more practical. The World Wide Web Consortium published XML 1.0 in December 1997 (www.w3c.org/XML/).

Extensible Style Language

(XSL). A language used to create stylesheets for XML, similar to CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) that are used for HTML. In XML, content and presentation are separate. XML tags do not indicate how they should be displayed. An XML document has to be formatted before it can be read, and the formatting is usually accomplished with stylesheets. Stylesheets consist of formatting rules for how particular XML tags affect the display of a document on a computer screen or a printed page. In XML, different stylesheets can be applied to the same data to hide or display different parts of a document for different users.

Extensible Virtual Toolkit

(XVT). An applications development toolkit from XVT Software, Inc., which makes it possible to develop user interfaces for multiple platforms.

extensions

In the Macintosh, drivers and other added functions (such as Dragging Enabler, Finder Help, Foreign File Access, QuickTime) which are in the Extensions folder within the System folder. The DOS equivalent is CONFIG.SYS.

exterior gateway protocol

(EGP). A protocol which gives TCP/IP routing information to a network's exterior gateways: the gateways (routers) that connect the network to other independent networks.

external drive

A drive which is outside the computer case but connected to the computer.

external interrupt

An interrupt from an external source such as the computer user, an external monitoring device, or a communication from another computer.

external modem

A modem that is outside the computer case; a separate unit that is plugged into the serial port.

external storage

Additional storage, such as floppy disk, CD-ROM, and tape storage, which is external to the computer's CPU.

external unit

A device which is outside the computer case, but connected to the computer; for example, an external modem, tape drive, or CD-ROM drive. External units are easier to detach than internal ones, and can be swapped or moved from one computer to another.

external viewer

Software external to a browser that helps the browser view files that it could not otherwise view.

extra high frequency

(EHF). Electromagnetic frequencies in the range of 30 to 300 gigaherz.

extra-density

(ED). The designation for a 3.5″ floppy disk that has a 2.88M storage capacity. Also called extra-high density

extranet

The part of a company or organization's internal computer network which is available to outside users, for example, information services for customers.

extremely low frequency

(ELF). Electromagnetic frequencies below 3 kiloherz. ELF radiations from computer monitors have caused health concerns, but their effects are not definitely known. The Swedish guidelines called MPR II define acceptable levels; some monitors are designed to meet these guidelines.

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