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There are 325 names in this directory beginning with the letter I.
I-beam pointer

The onscreen pointer when it is in the shape of an I.

I-Comm

A World Wide Web graphical browser for IBM PCs with Windows or OS/2, downloadable as shareware.

i-way

Information superhighway.

I/O

Input/Output. Transfer of data into a computer, and from the computer to the outside world.

I/O address

Input/Output address. A unique address given to a peripheral device for input and output; on a PC, the I/O address is in the form of a three-digit hexademical number.

I/O area

A memory area that temporarily holds data from an input device, or data which will be sent to an output device.

I/O device

Input/Output device. A device that is used to transfer data into or out of the computer; also called peripheral device.

i860

A RISC chip developed by Intel, used in Stratus computer systems.

IAB

Internet Architecture Board, formerly Internet Activities Board. The technical body that governs the Internet. It has two task forces: the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), which explores new technologies, and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which develops standards.

IAC

1. Inter Application Communications. In Macintosh System 7 and above, the exchange of communication between one application and another. 2. In Any Case (chat).

IAITS

It’s All In The Subject . IAITS is the only content in the body of an email where the message is contained in the subject line. For example, the subject of the message could be "I want my money back now!" The body of the email would say simply, IAITS.

IANA

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. The authority responsible for assigning numbers (such as port or socket numbers) in the Internet Suite of Protocols. For number assignments, email [email protected]

IAP

Internet Access Provider. An organization or company which provides Internet access to individuals, businesses, or other groups. An IAP may provide leased line services for dedicated high-speed access, and dial-up accounts that use a modem and a regular telephone line. Major online services such as America Online and CompuServe often are also Internet access providers.

IAS

A machine that many consider to be the first modern computer, built by Jon von Neumann for the Institute for Advanced Studies.

iBCS

Intel Binary Compatibility Specifications (Intel).

IBM

International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, NY. The world's largest computer company, begun in New York in 1911 as the Computing-
Tabulating-Recording Company and renamed IBM in 1924. IBM sold
tabulating machines and punch cards from the 1920s through the 1960s, and started selling computers in 1953. IBM sells mainframes, minicomputers, workstations, personal computers, and software, including the OS/2 operating system. In 1991, IBM joined with Apple Computer and Motorola to produce the PowerPC chip.

IBM Advanced Technology PC

(AT). An IBM PC introduced in 1984 that was the most advanced PC at that time, with an Intel 80286 processor, 16-bit bus, and 1.2MB floppy drive.

IBM compatible

A personal computer that is compatible with the IBM PC.

IBM PC

International Business Machines Personal Computer. PCs and compatibles are used more than any other computer systems in the world.

IBM PC AT

(Advanced Technology). An IBM PC introduced in 1984. It was the most advanced PC at that time, with an Intel 80286 processor, 16-bit bus, and 1.2MB floppy drive.

IBM PC XT

(Extended Technology). The first IBM PC to have a hard disk. It came out in 1983. It had an Intel 8088 microprocessor, 128KB of RAM, and a 10MB hard drive.

IBM PCjr

(PC junior). The first home computer from IBM, introduced in 1983. It had a chiclet keyboard, floppy disks, and an Intel 8088 microprocessor. Some of them had a mouse and popup menus.

IBM-GL

IBM – Graphics Language.

IC

1. Integrated circuit. Also called microelectronic or chip. A microelectronic device comprising many miniature transistors and other electronic components on a single thin rectangle of silicon or sapphire, approximately 1/16" to 5/8" on a side, and 1/30" thick. An integrated circuit can contain dozens, hundreds, or millions of electronic components. To make a chip, impurities are added to the supporting material, or substrate, in specific places to create P-type and N-type regions; then by projecting light onto light-sensitive chemicals, polysilicon or aluminium tracks are etched into the top 1/1000" of the substrate to make the electronic circuits. Chips come in analog, digital and hybrid types. Compared with earlier technology, microelectronics are faster, more compact, more energy-efficient, and cheaper to manufacture. The most complete integrated circuit is a microprocessor: a computer on a single chip. 2. In Character. The mode used when playing a character in a role-playing game (RPG). See OOC (Out of Character). 3. I See (chat).

ICAS

Intel Communicating Applications Specifications (Intel).

ICB

Internet Citizens Band.

ICCP

Institute for Certification of Computer Professionals. An organization in Des Plaines, IL, U.S.A. that certifies computer professionals in many countries. Certification is given on the basis of tests, academic credit, and/or job experience. The different types of certification are: Associate Computer Professional (ACP), Certified Computer Programmer (CCP), Certified Data Processor (CDP), and Certified Systems Professional (CSP).

ICE

Information and Content Exchange. A protocol based on XML which will make it easier for large businesses and organizations to manage and exchange information and assets via networks, using secure transactions. ICE can be used by syndicated publishing networks, Web superstores, and online resellers to automate many transactions and reduce the cost of doing business online.

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol. An extension to the Internet Protocol which is used to communicate between a gateway and a source host, to manage errors and generate control messages.

ICO

Icon file extension

iCOMP

Intel Comparative Microprocessor Performance index. A benchmark used by Intel to compare the performance of microprocessors.

icon

In a graphical user interface, a small picture on the screen which represents something. Files and programs have icons, and open when the user clicks twice on the icon. There is an icon to show which program is currently running. Moving and copying files is done by dragging their icons to the desired location. A file is deleted by moving its icon to the picture of a trash can.

ICQ

("I Seek You"). A chat program from Mirabilis for Windows 95. It can be set to notify the user when friends are online; it seeks out friends of the user so messages and files can be exchanged.

ICR

Intelligent Character Recognition. The ability of a computer to recognize hand-printed characters or typeset characters that are unclear.

ICS

Intergraph Computer Systems. A Huntsville, Alabama computer manufacturer. Intergraph develops, manufactures, sells, and supports computer systems for the Technical Desktop. Some products are Intel-based TD personal workstations, TDZ 3D workstations, servers, peripherals, and interactive computer graphics systems.

ICVerify

ICVerify is a program which lets you use your PC as a credit card terminal. You can process credit cards, ATM and debit cards, and approve checks.

ICW

Interactive CourseWare. A U.S. military term for software used with computer-aided instruction and computer-based training. Interactive CourseWare relies on interaction with the trainee to determine the pacing and sequence of a course of instruction.

ID

Identification.

IDAPI

Integrated Database API . Borland database programming interface.

IDC

International Data Corporation. A Framingham, Massachusetts company that does market research and analysis on all aspects of information technology.

IDDE

Integrated Development & Debugging Environment (Symantec).

IDE

1. Integrated Drive Electronics. Interface for connecting additional hard drives to a computer. 2. Integrated Development Environment (Borland). 3. Interactive Development Environment. A set of programming tools to help the user write software.

idle time

Time during which a machine is operational, but not in use.

IDMS

Integrated Database Management System. A relational database management system for minicomputers and mainframes.

IDNS

Internet Domain Name System.

IE

1. Internet Explorer. A graphical World-Wide Web browser from Microsoft for Microsoft Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, and Macintosh. It can be downloaded from the Internet. 2. Information Engineering. The methods and technologies used to process information within an organization.

IEC

International Electrotechnical Commission. An organization in Geneva that sets international standards for the electrical and electronics fields. IEC created the Joint Technical Committee for information technology with ISO.

www.ieee.org.

ieee

Top-level newsgroup category for an IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) newsgroup.

IEEE Computer Society

The Computer Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers holds conferences on computers and technology, and publishes a journal called Computer.

IESG

Internet Engineering Steering Group. Executive committee of the Internet Engineering Task Force.

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force. An international group of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers who coordinate the management and evolution of the Internet, addressing issues of protocol and architecture. The IETF submits proposals for standards to the Internet Architecture Board.

IFIP

International Federation for Information Processing. An international federation of professional and technical organizations in Geneva, Switzerland, concerned with information processing. There is one representative organization from each country; the United States representative is FOCUS. IFIP does research to help develop standards, and advises the International Telecommunications Union.

IGC

Institute for Global Communications. An organization dedicated to using computer networks to further the causes of peace, human rights, and preserving the environment. The IGC promotes the use of high technology to improve international communication and information exchange. IGC networks include PeaceNet, EcoNet, ConflictNet and LaborNet.

IGMP

Internet Group Multicast Protocol.

IGP

Interior Gateway Protocol. An Internet protocol which provides routing information to the routers within an autonomous network.

IGRP

Internet Gateway Routing Protocol. A proprietary interior gateway protocol used to exchange routing information between Cisco Systems routers.

IHV

Independent Hardware Vendor. A company that manufactures hardware related to computers such as accessories or components, but not complete systems.

IIOP

Internet Inter-ORB Protocol. A protocol based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), which defines how distributed objects communicate and allows client software on many platforms to access and use the same object on a server. See ORB (Object Request Broker).

IIS

(Internet Information Server). Microsoft’s Web server software, which uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to deliver World Wide Web documents. It provides functions for security, Gopher and FTP servers, and CGI.

ILEC

Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier. A telephone company providing local telephone service to its customers. Compare with CLEC.

ill-behaved

Programs called ill-behaved are designed to bypass normal operating system functions, which may result in better performance but makes the program less portable and more likely to be restricted to specific hardware. See well-behaved.

illustration program

A program used for drawing illustrations. Illustration programs store images in vector graphics format. Examples are Adobe Illustrator and Macromedia Freehand (for Macintosh and Windows), and CorelDRAW for Windows.

IM

Instant Messaging. A live chat and email service that enables you to find your friends when they are online and send messages or talk via a private chat room. Each user has a private list of instant messaging addresses, and the instant messaging system can be set to alert you when someone on your list is online. You can leave an email message for a user who is not available online. Examples of instant messaging systems are ICQ, Yahoo! Pager, AOL Instant Messenger, Ding!, PeopleLink, and talk.com; some of these are available for free download. Since there is no standard for instant messaging, anyone you communicate with must use the same system you use.

iMac

(internet Macintosh). A Macintosh designed for easy access to the Internet, in a futuristic translucent case. The iMac includes a 233MHz PowerPC G3 processor, 32MB SDRAM, 4GB hard disk drive, 24x CD-ROM drive, built-in 56K modem, 10/100Base-Tx Ethernet, built-in 12Mbps Universal Serial Bus ports, Mac OS 8.1, and a collection of software. In addition to Ethernet, which can link iMac to printers and other computers, the iMac has 12Mbps Universal Serial Bus ports for printers, disk drives, scanners, cameras, game controllers, and other peripherals.

IMACS

Image Management And Communication System.

image

A picture. Images on the computer are usually represented as bitmaps (raster graphics) or vector graphics.

image editing

Making changes in an image. Image editing tools allow filtering, color changes, pixel-by-pixel editing to smooth jagged lines, and many special effects such as reversing or digitizing the image.

image editor

A program that can be used to make changes in computer graphics. The program can be used to crop, enhance, paint, and filter scanned images. Adobe Photoshop is an example of an image editing tool. Some page layout programs such as Quark and Pagemaker allow image editing after the image has been imported.

image filter

A tool for modifying images in paint and photo editing programs. Image filters can be used to adjust brightness and contrast, add textures, and create other special effects by changing the color and shading of pixels.

image format

A format in which an image can be stored and used. Some formats, such as TIFF and PICT, can be imported into many different programs and transferred between different platforms. GIF and JPEG are formats used for images on HTML pages. There are image conversion tools in some programs (for example, Photoshop), which make it possible to change from one format to another.

image map

A map or other graphic in an HTML document that has “hot spots” or hyperlinks. When using an interactive browser such as Netscape, a user can click on a spot on the image and bring up a page with more information. For example, clicking a spot on a weather map might open a page with weather forecasts for that region.

image preview

Before WYSIWYG arrived with desktop publishing, a typesetter would have to print out a page to see how it was going to look. Technological improvements brought image preview, which allowed the operator to switch to a screen view of the page, then switch back to the page to edit it. Some word processing and graphics programs still work this way, somewhere between blind page design and full WYSIWYG. Since the advent of windowing technology, the preview image may appear in a separate window which can be viewed at the same time as the page, but not edited.

imagesetter

A high-quality output device, also called a typesetter, which can transfer text and graphics to a page. An imagesetter can accept input from a computer and produce high-resolution copy. Output of the imagesetter is on film-based paper or the actual film which is used to make plates for printing.

imaging

The production of images by photography, filming, videotaping, or scanning. Imaging often means not only preserving an image, but putting it into a form readable by a computer.

IMAP

Internet Message Access Protocol. A protocol that allows a user to perform certain electronic mail functions on a remote server rather than on a local computer. Through IMAP the user can create, delete, or rename mailboxes; get new messages; delete messages; and perform search functions on mail. A separate protocol is required for sending mail. Also called Internet Mail Access Protocol.

IMer

A user of instant messaging (IM).

IMP

Interface Message Processor. A name that was used for the nodes in the original Arpanet.

impact printer

A printer that prints by mechanical impact; for example, a daisy wheel or dot matrix printer. The print head strikes an inked ribbon which puts the images of the characters on the paper.

import

To convert a file from one system or application to the format
of the system or application being used.

IMS

Instructional Management Systems. Educom's Instructional Management Systems Project (IMS) has released technical specifications defining how learning materials will be exchanged over the Internet, and how organizations and individual learners will use them. The goal is the adoption of a set of open standards for Internet-based education. IMS Metadata will be represented in XML/RDF format.

IMS

Information Management System. A database management system for mainframes from IBM.

IMTV

Interactive Multimedia TeleVision.

IN

INput.

incompatible

Not able to work together. Can be said of hardware/hardware, software/software, or hardware/software combinations.

incremental backup

Making a copy of only the files that have changed since the last backup, instead of backing up every file. Incremental backup saves a lot of time and can save storage space.

indefinite iteration

Repeating a series of instructions an indefinite number of times until a specific condition is met; for example, performing a search until the item has been found or determined not to be there.

indent

Aligning a portion of text farther inside of the margin than the surrounding text. The first line of a paragraph is often indented from the left margin. In extracts, a whole section of text may be indented from right and left margins.

Indeo video

A way of recording, compressing, and decompressing video for playing on a computer. The software is from Intel; one of its main applications is video conferencing.

independent hardware vendor

(IHV). A company that manufactures hardware related to computers such as accessories or components, but not complete systems.

independent software vendor

(ISV). A company that specializes in the development and sale of software.

indicator light

A little light on a computer or peripheral, usually an LED, which indicates the device is on, a drive is active, or other information.

indirect address


inductance

1. A property of an electric circuit that causes an electromotive force to be induced in it by a variation of current either in the circuit itself or in a neighboring circuit. 2. The measure of inductance, which is the ratio of induced electromotive force to the rate of change of the inducing current.

Industrial Robot Language

(IRL). A high-level language used for the programming of industrial robots.

Industry Standard Architecture

(ISA). A PC expansion bus used for modems, video displays, speakers, and other peripherals. PCs with ISA commonly have some 8-bit and some 16-bit expansion slots.

inews

A UNIX program used to post Usenet articles.

inference

A process of deriving new facts from facts already known, by means of the rules of logic.

inference rule

A logical rule used to make inferences (derive new facts from facts already known).

infinite loop

A program loop that repeats itself forever, unless interrupted from outside the program. An infinite loop can be caused by a bug in the program, or may be intentional, as with a screen saver that repeats itself until the user interrupts it by touching the mouse or keyboard.

info

Top-level newsgroup category for a University of Illinois newsgroup.

Info Strada

Another name for the information superhighway. (“Strada” is Italian for road or highway).

Infobahn

The Information Superhighway. The expression comes from the German Autobahn, a superhighway for automobiles.

infopreneur

An entrepreneur in the information industry; a provider of information, usually through electronic media.

Information and Content Exchange

(ICE). A protocol based on XML which will make it easier for large businesses and organizations to manage and exchange information and assets via networks, using secure transactions. ICE can be used by syndicated publishing networks, Web superstores, and online resellers to automate many transactions and reduce the cost of doing business online.

information engineering

(IE). The methods and technologies used to process information within an organization.

Information Management System

(IMS). A database management system for mainframes from IBM.

information packet

A packet of data which can be sent over a network.

Information Processing Techniques Office

(IPTO). The agency formed by the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1962 to coordinate ARPA's command and control research. Later it became ISTO.

Information Products Interchange

(IPI). A working committee of the Telecommunications Industry Forum whose job it is to establish standards and guidelines for the telecommunications industry. The IPI has worked on Telecommunications Interchange Markup (TIM) and Telecommunications Electronic Document Delivery (TEDD).

Information Resource Management

(IRM). The management of information resources in a large business enterprise or other organization.

Information Science and Technology Offic

(ISTO). An agency formed by the DoD in 1986 as an expansion of Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO). See also CSTO.

information service

An online service such as CompuServe, Prodigy, or America Online that provides access to many kinds of information.

information superhighway

A name first used by U.S. Vice President Al Gore for the vision of a global, high-speed communications network that will carry voice, data, video, and other forms of information all over the world, and that will make it possible for people to send email, get up-to-the-minute news, and access business, government and educational information. The Internet is already providing many of these features, via telephone networks, cable TV services, online service providers, and satellites.

Information Technology

(IT). The technology of data processing/information management.

information warfare

An attack on vital computer systems that control security, emergency response, financial transactions, transportation, communications, etc.

Infoseek

An Internet search engine (http://www.infoseek.com/).

INIT

Initialize.

ink cartridge

The cartridge that supplies ink for an inkjet printer.

inkjet printer

A printer in which the image is made by tiny ink droplets which are sprayed from a nozzle onto a piece of paper. Inkjet printers can produce high-resolution color or black and white images.

inline graphic

A built-in graphic image that is displayed by the browser as part of an HTML document and is retrieved along with it, not requiring a separate viewer.

inline image

A built-in graphic image that is displayed by a browser as part of a document written in HTML, and is retrieved along with it, not requiring a separate viewer.

inline video

A video clip which is embedded on a web page; inline video runs in real time and does not require a separate player.

input

To enter data into a computer; or, the data that is input.

input device

A peripheral device that is used to enter commands or information into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, joystick, modem, scanner, or touch screen.

input devices

Peripheral devices that are used to enter commands or information into a computer, such as the keyboard, mouse, joystick, modem, scanner, and touch screen.

input focus

The area of a window where the user can input data by means of the keyboard or mouse.

input/output

(I/O). Transfer of data into a computer, and from the computer to the outside world.

Ins key

Insert key. A key that is used to switch between insert and typeover modes.

insert key

(Ins). A key that is used to switch between insert and typeover modes.

insert mode

A mode in which characters typed will be inserted where the cursor is on the screen, moving aside type already on the line. See typeover mode and overwrite mode.

instant messaging

(IM). A live chat and email service that enables you to find your friends when they are online and send messages or talk via a private chat room. Each user has a private list of instant messaging addresses, and the instant messaging system can be set to alert you when someone on your list is online. You can leave an email message for a user who is not available online. Examples of instant messaging systems are ICQ, Yahoo! Pager, AOL Instant Messenger, Ding!, PeopleLink, and talk.com; some of these are available for free download. Since there is no standard for instant messaging, anyone you communicate with must use the same system you use.

instant print

A mode in which a computer is used like a typewriter. Each character prints as it is struck.

Institute for Certification of Computer

(ICCP). An organization in Des Plaines, IL, U.S.A. that certifies computer professionals in many countries. Certification is given on the basis of tests, academic credit, and/or job experience. The different types of certification are: Associate Computer Professional (ACP), Certified Computer Programmer (CCP), Certified Data Processor (CDP), and Certified Systems Professional (CSP).

Institute for Global Communications

(IGC). An organization dedicated to using computer networks to further the causes of peace, human rights, and preserving the environment. The IGC promotes the use of high technology to improve international communication and information exchange. IGC networks include PeaceNet, EcoNet, ConflictNet and LaborNet.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics

(IEEE). A worldwide professional association for electrical and electronics engineers, which sets standards for telecommunications and computing applications.

instruction

A statement that indicates an operation for the computer to perform and any data to be used in performing the operation. An instruction can be in machine language or a programming language.

instruction cycle

Each time a computer is given an instruction in machine language, the CPU must complete a cycle of four steps: fetch the instruction from main memory, decode it, execute it, and store the result. These four steps are the instruction cycle; the term also refers to the length of time one cycle takes.

instruction time

The first half of the instruction cycle, in which the instruction is fetched from memory, transferred to the instruction register, and decoded.

Instructional Management Systems

(IMS). Educom's Instructional Management Systems Project (IMS) has released technical specifications defining how learning materials will be exchanged over the Internet, and how organizations and individual learners will use them. The goal is the adoption of a set of open standards for Internet-based education. IMS Metadata will be represented in XML/RDF format.

insulator

A material that does not conduct electrical current.

INTAP

Interoperability Technology Association for Information Processing. A technical organization involved in developing Japanese OSI profiles and conformance tests.

integer

A whole number. A positive or negative number with no fractional part; a fixed-point number in which the part after the decimal is zero.

Integer BASIC

A version of BASIC written for the Apple II that only uses integers in calculations.

integrated circuit

(IC). Also called microelectronics or chips. An integrated circuit is a microelectronic device comprising many miniature transistors and other electronic components on a single thin rectangle of silicon or sapphire, approximately 1/16″ to 5/8″ on a side, and 1/30″ thick. An integrated circuit can contain dozens, hundreds, or millions of electronic components. To make a chip, impurities are added to the supporting material, or substrate, in specific places to create P-type and N-type regions; then by projecting light onto light-sensitive chemicals, polysilicon or aluminium tracks are etched into the top 1/1000″ of the substrate to make the electronic circuits. Chips come in analog, digital and hybrid types. Compared with earlier technology, microelectronics are faster, more compact, more energy-efficient, and cheaper to manufacture. The most complete integrated circuit is a microprocessor.

http://www.intel.com.

intelligent agent

A software routine that uses intelligence to do an assigned task; for example, searching through incoming mail and reserving items related to a certain subject.

intelligent character recognition

(ICR). The ability of a computer to recognize hand-printed characters or typeset characters that are unclear.

intelligent hub

A central connecting device in a network that provides intelligent functions as well as forwarding signals. An intelligent hub can provide bridging, routing and switching, and even more complex functions such as network management and LAN emulation. See also active hub, passive hub.

intelligent modem

A modem that has a command state in which it can be programmed, and an online state in which it performs automatic functions such as dialing, answering the phone, handshaking, and transmitting and receiving communications. The first intelligent modem was the Hayes Smartmodem from Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. The commands used by Hayes modems became an industry standard and are now used by many other modems.

intelligent terminal

A terminal that is part of a larger system and uses a main computer for storage of data, but has its own processing capability.

Inter Application Communications

(IAC). A technology introduced with the Macintosh System 7 which enables applications to communicate with each other when necessary carry out commands given by the user. Drag and drop is one function that makes use of IAC.

inter-

A prefix meaning between or among; for example, an internet is a network between networks.

inter-packet gap

A time delay which is required between data packets on an Ethernet so that all connected machines have a chance to transmit. Ethernet nodes must wait for the network to be idle before sending data.

Inter-Process Communication

(IPC). The automatic exchange of data between one process and another, within a computer or between networked computers. Examples are Unix sockets, Windows Dynamic Data Exchange, and Macintosh InterApplication Communications.

interactive

A term for computer programs that accept input from the user while they are running; for example, a game that waits for the user to take an action, then responds to that action. The interaction between computer and user may take place through typed commands, voice commands, mouse clicks, or other means of interfacing. The opposite of interactive processing is batch processing, where all the commands are given before the program starts to run.

Interactive CourseWare

(ICW) A U.S. military term for software used with computer-aided instruction and computer-based training. Interactive CourseWare relies on interaction with the trainee to determine the pacing and sequence of a course of instruction.

interactive development environment

(IDE). A set of programming tools (such as Visual C++ or Visual Basic) that help the user to write software.

interactive processing

In interactive processing, the user communicates with the computer while the program is running, perhaps giving instructions for each item. In batch processing, a whole series of instructions are executed without stopping for input from the user.

interactive session

A work session in which there is an exchange of communication between the user and the computer.

interactive TV

A kind of television that allows interactive participation by the viewer; for example, shop-at-home or movies on demand.

interactive video

(IV). Video in which the user can control which part of a program to view, or interact with certain parts of the program.

interface

A shared boundary where two or more systems meet; or the means by which communication is achieved at this boundary. An interface can be between hardware and hardware (such as sockets and plugs, or electrical signals), hardware and software, software and software, human and computer (such as a mouse or keyboard and display screen).

interface adapter

A device that connects a computer or computer terminal to a network.

interface analysis

Using a software test to check the interfaces between program elements to see if they are consistent and properly designed.

Interface Message Processor

(IMP). A name that was used for the nodes in the original Arpanet.

Intergraph Computer Systems

(ICS). A Huntsville, Alabama computer manufacturer. Intergraph develops, manufactures, sells, and supports computer systems for the Technical Desktop. Some products are Intel-based TD personal workstations, TDZ 3D workstations, servers, peripherals, and interactive computer graphics systems.

Interior Gateway Protocol

(IGP). An Internet protocol which provides routing information to the routers within an autonomous network.

interlaced display

A display technology in which electron beams scan alternately all the even numbered lines then all the odd numbered lines, so that the whole screen is covered in two vertical scans.

interleave

To arrange parts of one sequence of data so they alternate with parts of another sequence of the same type of data. Audio, images, or text may be stored in alternating segments this way. When a file is retrieved, the system puts the right segments back together again. Interleaving makes more efficient storage.

interleaving

Alternating parts of one stream of data with parts of another stream of data in order to store the data more efficiently.

intermediate system

In OSI terminology, a system which is between and serves instead to relay communications between end systems.

Intermediate System to Intermediate Syst

(IS-IS). The OSI protocol which allows intermediate systems to exchange routing information.

intermittent error

An error that occurs from time to time, but not predictably.

internal bus

A bus connecting components that are very close to each other, such as main memory and the central processing unit.

internal drive

A drive which is inside the computer case.

internal font

A font that is built into the printer.

internal interrupt

An interrupt caused by a machine instruction; for example, a need for input or output, a call for a subroutine, or certain errors.

internal modem

A modem that is inside the computer, connected by plugging into an expansion slot.

Internal Organization of the Network Lay

(IONL). The OSI standard for the detailed architecture of its Network Layer, which divides it into subnetworks and defines the protocols that connect them.

internal unit

A unit which is inside the computer; for example, a built-in CD-ROM drive or modem.

International Business Machines Corporat

(IBM). International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, NY. The world's largest computer company, begun in New York in 1911 as the Computing-
Tabulating-Recording Company and renamed IBM in 1924. IBM sold
tabulating machines and punch cards from the 1920s through the 1960s, and started selling computers in 1953. IBM sells mainframes, minicomputers, workstations, personal computers, and software, including the OS/2 operating system. In 1991, IBM joined with Apple Computer and Motorola to produce the PowerPC chip.

International Data Corporation

(IDC). A Framingham, Massachusetts company that does market research and analysis on all aspects of information technology.

International Electrotechnical Commissio

(IEC). An organization in Geneva that sets international standards for the electrical and electronics fields. IEC created the Joint Technical Committee for information technology with ISO.

International Federation for Information

(IFIP). An international federation of professional and technical organizations in Geneva, Switzerland, concerned with information processing. There is one representative organization from each country; the United States representative is FOCUS. IFIP does research to help develop standards, and advises the International Telecommunications Union.

International Organization for Standardi

(ISO). A voluntary organization founded in 1946, comprised of the national standards organizations of many countries, and responsible for creating international standards in many areas, including computers and communications. ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the American member of ISO. ISO produced OSI (Open Systems Interconnection), a seven-layer model for network architecture.

International Phonetic Alphabet

(IPA). An alphabet designed as a pronunciation guide for all languages, which represents each sound in human speech with its own symbol.

International Standard

The series of standards created by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

International Telecommunications Union

(ITU). An organization in Geneva, Switzerland. ITU is one of the organizations working on forming international standards for communication. ITU-T is the arm of ITU responsible for telecommunications standards.

International Time Recording Company

A New York time-clock company that merged with other companies in 1911 to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, which in 1924 was renamed the International Business Machines Company (IBM).

internationalization

Designing an operating system so the user interface can be adapted to different languages and measurement systems for users of different nationalities. Contrast with localization.

Internaut

A person who navigates the Internet.

internet

Short for internetwork. A network of networks; a group of networks interconnected via routers. Contrast with The Internet (with a capital I), the world's largest internet.

Internet

The biggest internet in the world. This worldwide information highway is comprised of thousands of interconnected computer networks, and reaches millions of people in many different countries. The Internet was originally developed for the United States military, and then became used for government, academic and commercial research and communications. The Internet is made up of large backbone networks (such as MILNET, NSFNET, and CREN), and smaller networks that link to them. The U.S. National Science Foundation maintains a major part of the backbone (NSFNET). The Internet functions as a gateway for electronic mail between various networks and online services. The World Wide Web facility on the Internet makes possible almost instantaneous exchange of information by linking documents around the world. Internet computers use the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). There are over six million hosts on the Internet: mainframes, minicomputers or workstations that support the Internet Protocol. The Internet is connected to computer networks worldwide that use various message formats and protocols; gateways convert these formats between networks so that the Internet functions as one big network. UNIX utilities such as FTP, Archie, Telnet, Gopher and Veronica have been widely used to access the Internet. The Internet sometimes appears to be amorphous and unregulated, but there are several administrative bodies: the Internet Architecture Board, which oversees technology and standards; the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, which assigns numbers for ports and sockets, etc.; InterNIC, which assigns Internet addresses; the Internet Engineering and Planning Group, Internet Engineering Steering Group, and the Internet Society.

Internet access

Access to the Internet via a dial-up account or direct connection.

Internet Access Provider

(IAP). An organization or company which provides Internet access to individuals, businesses, or other groups. An IAP may provide leased line services for dedicated high-speed access, and dial-up accounts that use a modem and a regular telephone line. Major online services such as America Online and CompuServe often are also Internet access providers.

Internet account

An account with an Internet Service Provider, usually for a monthly fee, that provides Internet access.

internet address

An IP address that identifies a specific computer or terminal on an internet. (The lowercase “i” in internet means a small computer network, rather than the Internet).

Internet address

A 32-bit address assigned to hosts using TCP/IP, given in dotted decimal notation; for example, 115.332.4.3.

Internet appliance

A hand-held computer designed only for Internet use.

Internet Architecture Board

(IAB). Formerly Internet Activities Board. The technical body that governs the Internet. It has two task forces: the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), which explores new technologies, and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which develops standards.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

(IANA). The authority responsible for assigning numbers (such as port or socket numbers) in the Internet Suite of Protocols. For number assignments, email [email protected]

Internet Control Message Protocol

(ICMP). An extension to the Internet Protocol which is used to communicate between a gateway and a source host, to manage errors and generate control messages.

Internet Engineering Steering Group

(IESG). Executive committee of the Internet Engineering Task Force.

Internet Engineering Task Force

(IETF). One of the task forces of the Internet Activities Board. The IETF is responsible for short-term engineering needs of the Internet and specifying new standards.

Internet Explorer

A graphical World-Wide Web browser from Microsoft for Microsoft Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, and Macintosh. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

Internet gateway

A system for converting messages between TCP/IP and other protocols. Through Internet gateways, all the various networks in the world become one big network.

Internet Gateway Routing Protocol

(IGRP). A proprietary interior gateway protocol used to exchange routing information between Cisco Systems routers.

Internet Information Server

(IIS). Microsoft's Web server software, which uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to deliver World Wide Web documents. It provides functions for security, Gopher and FTP servers, and CGI.

Internet Inter-ORB Protocol

(IIOP). A protocol based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), which defines how distributed objects communicate and allows client software on many platforms to access and use the same object on a server. See ORB (Object Request Broker).

Internet Message Access Protocol

(IMAP). A protocol that allows a user to perform certain electronic mail functions on a remote server rather than on a local computer. Through IMAP the user can create, delete, or rename mailboxes; get new messages; delete messages; and perform search functions on mail. A separate protocol is required for sending mail.

Internet Message Support Protocol

(IMSP) An Internet protocol that allows mail preferences and address books to be stored on a remote server. And IMSP allows users who use e-mail from multiple locations to have access to and maintain a single address book. IMSP is now referred to as Application Configuration Access Protocol (ACAP).

Internet Network Information Center

InterNIC. A group of three organizations which together provide services for NSFNet. General Atomics handles information services, AT&T handles directory and database services, and Network Solutions, Inc. (NSI) handles registration services. Network addresses and domain names for the Internet are assigned by InterNIC through NSI.

Internet PC

A specially-designed computer that is only for surfing the Internet.

Internet phone

Technology for sending real-time voice communication over the Internet.

Internet Protocol

(IP). The IP part of TCP/IP; the protocol used to route a data packet from its source to its destination over the Internet.

Internet Public Library

(IPL). An online public library sponsored by University of Michigan School of Information and Library Studies (http://ipl.sils.umich.edu/). The library offers a reference department, a youth department, a professional staff who will answer questions, and many other services.

Internet Registry

(IR). A service provided by the Defense Data Network's Network Information Center, which has the responsibility of handling network address and Autonomous System identifiers for the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

Internet Relay Chat

(IRC). Worldwide real-time conferencing on the Internet, reached by Telnetting to an IRC server. There are hundreds of IRC channels for many different subjects, from many countries. There are purely social chat rooms, and channels dedicated to more serious purposes.

Internet Research Task Force

(IRTF). One of the task forces of the Internet Architecture Board; responsible for research and development of the Internet Protocol. The IRTF explores new technologies and makes recommendations to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

Internet Service Provider

(ISP). A company which provides Internet access or Internet accounts to individuals, businesses, and other groups.

Internet Society

(ISOC). A non-profit, professional membership organization in Reston, Virginia, U.S.A., which is dedicated to educating people about the Internet, and encouraging computer networks to voluntarily join in creating a worldwide communications and information infrastructure. The ISOC supports the development of technical standards through the IAB, IETF and IRTF.

Internet Talk Radio

(ITR). Audio news files from the National Press Building, Washington, DC; available by FTP.

Internet utility

A program for searching the Internet. Some examples: Archie searches FTP sites; Veronica searches Gopher sites; Jughead searches Gopher directories; WAIS searches the complete contents of documents.

Internet Video Phone

An application from Intel that lets you talk to others across the Internet using both audio and video.

Internet Worm

A computer worm that in November 1988 infected over 6,000 computers on the Internet via the Sun UNIX sendmail program and other security loopholes.

internetwork

1. A wide area network that connects smaller networks. 2. To pass from one network to another.

Internetwork Packet Exchange

(IPX). A Novell NetWare protocol for delivering messages in datagram format.

internetworking

Communicating between two or more networks via a router or gateway.

InterNIC

Internet Network Information Center. A group of three organizations which together provide services for NSFNet. General Atomics handles information services, AT&T handles directory and database services, and Network Solutions, Inc. (NSI) handles registration services. Network addresses and domain names for the Internet are assigned by InterNIC through NSI.

interoperability

The ability of software and hardware on different machines to communicate with each other.

Interoperability Technology Association

(INTAP). A technical organization involved in developing Japanese OSI profiles and conformance tests.

interoperable

A word describing systems that can communicate or work with each other.

interoperable database

A database front-end which communicates with other databases of different formats so that they all work together, and data from one system can be accessed from another system.

interpolated resolution

The resolution a device can generate by using a process known as interpolation — estimating intermediate values based on the knowledge of two known values in a sequence.

interpret

To run a program from source code by reading it one line at a time and performing each instruction immediately.

interpreter

A program which executes source code by reading it one line at a time and performing each instruction immediately. An interpreter is different from a compiler, which does not execute the source code, but translates it into object code (machine language) which is stored in a file and executed later. Some programming languages must be interpreted; some can be both interpreted and compiled.

interpretive language

A programming language that must be interpreted. Programs written in these languages can only be run if the interpreter is available in the computer.

interpupillary distance

(IPD).The distance between the eyes; a measurement used in designing virtual reality devices such as head mounted displays.

interrecord gap

(IRG). The space between blocks of data on a magnetic tape.

interrupt

A temporary suspension of a process. There are two main sources of interrupts: a signal from outside the computer, such as someone touching the keyboard or mouse (a hardware interrupt); or a machine instruction such as a request for input or output (a software interrupt). When an interrupt occurs, the CPU may temporarily gives control to an interrupt handler routine. The suspended process is resumed after the interrupt has been handled.

interrupt handler

A routine that is called to deal with an interrupt.

interrupt priority

The relative importance of an interrupt. If two interrupts occur at once, the higher priority one gets handled first.

Interrupt Request

1. (IRQ). Designation of a hardware interrupt in a PC. A PC has either 8 or 16 lines which accept interrupts from attached devices (such as a keyboard, SCSI card, scanner, sound card, mouse, etc.). Different devices competing for the same IRQ cause conflicts. The Plug and Play system was designed to simplify everything through resource arbitration: the operating system keeps track of which resources are allocated to which device. 2. (IR). In the IBM 8100 Information System, a request which establishes the interrupt priority of a particular process.

Interrupt Service Routine

(ISR). A software routine that is activated to respond to an interrupt.

intersect

1. To meet and cross at a point; as the intersection of two lines. 2. To compare two database files and derive a third file with records that are found in both.

InterSLIP

A freeware Serial Line Internet Protocol for Macintosh from Intercon Systems Corporation.

intra-

A prefix meaning within; for example, an intranet is a network within a building or organization.

intranet

A local area network which may not be connected to the Internet, but which has some similar functions. Some organizations set up World Wide Web servers on their own internal networks so employees have access to the organization's Web documents.

intrusive testing

Testing in which the behavior of the software being tested may be changed from its normal behavior by the test itself.

Invalid directory

A DOS error message that means the requested directory does not exist.

invitation to send

(ITS). A character sequence sent to a teletypewriter terminal to see if it is ready to transmit data. The term originated at Western Union.

IOBench

A UNIX benchmark that measures I/O throughput and fixed workload.

IOCall

A UNIX benchmark that measures OS performance and system call interface efficiency.

IOgen

A UNIX benchmark written by Symbios Logic. The program displays as output the number of processes doing input/output, the average response time, the number of I/O operations per second, and the number of kilobytes per second.

IOmeter

Formerly called Galileo. A benchmark written by Intel to measure I/O for single and clustered systems. IOmeter tests a computer's I/O subsystem performance under a controlled load.

IONL

Internal Organization of the Network Layer. The OSI standard for the detailed architecture of its Network Layer, which divides it into subnetworks and defines the protocols that connect them.

IOstone

A multi-platform disk benchmark program that measures file I/O and buffer cache efficiency. This benchmark was originally created for UNIX and later ported to OS/2 and DOS.

IOzone

A benchmark that measures the number of bytes per second that a system can read or write to a file. It can be used with DOS, SCO, Linux, Solaris, and BSDI.

IP

1. Internet Protocol. The IP part of TCP/IP; the protocol that is used to route a data packet from its source to its destination over the Internet. 2. Intellectual Property

IP address

The Internet Protocol address; a numeric address such as 123.231.32.2 that the domain name server translates into a domain name.

IP datagram

The basic unit of information transmitted via the Internet. A datagram has the addresses of its source and destination, the data being sent, error checking, and some other fields that define the length of the datagram, whether the datagram is or can be fragmented, etc.

IPA

International Phonetic Alphabet. An alphabet designed as a pronunciation guide for all languages, which represents each sound in human speech with its own symbol.

IPC

Inter-Process Communication. The automatic exchange of data between one process and another, within a computer or between networked computers. Examples are Unix sockets, Windows Dynamic Data Exchange, and Macintosh InterApplication Communications.

IPD

Interpupillary Distance.The distance between the eyes; a measurement used in designing virtual reality devices such as head mounted displays.

IPI

Information Products Interchange. A working committee of the Telecommunications Industry Forum whose job it is to establish standards and guidelines for the telecommunications industry. The IPI has worked on Telecommunications Interchange Markup (TIM) and Telecommunications Electronic Document Delivery (TEDD).

IPL

Internet Public Library. An online public library sponsored by University of Michigan School of Information and Library Studies (http://ipl.sils.umich.edu/). The library offers a reference department, a youth department, a professional staff who will answer questions, and many other services.

IPng

IP Next Generation. The new version of the Internet Protocol (IP) defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force, which has better security and increases Internet addresses from four to 16 bytes, to cope with the explosive growth of the Internet. Also called IPv6.

ips

Inches per second, a measurement of tape speed.

IPSE

Integrated Project Support Environment. An integrated set of technical and management tools which support software development.

IPTO

Information Processing Techniques Office. The agency formed by the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1962 to coordinate ARPA's command and control research. Later it became ISTO.

IPv6

Internet Protocol Version Six. Also known as IPng. The new version of the Internet Protocol (IP) defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force, which has better security and increases Internet addresses from four to 16 bytes, to cope with the explosive growth of the Internet. Also called IPng.

IPX

Internetwork Packet Exchange. A Novell NetWare protocol for delivering messages in datagram format.

IPX/SPX

Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. IPX is a Novell communications protocol used by NetWare clients and servers to deliver messages within and between networks. SPX ensures reliable delivery of complete messages.

IQL

Incoming Quality Level.

IR

1. Internet Registry. A service provided by the Defense Data Network's Network Information Center, which has the responsibility of handling network address and Autonomous System identifiers for the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). 2. (IR). In the IBM 8100 Information System, a request which establishes the interrupt priority of a particular process.

IRC

Internet Relay Chat. Worldwide real-time conferencing on the Internet, reached by Telnetting to an IRC server. There are hundreds of IRC channels for many different subjects, from many countries. There are purely social chat rooms, and channels dedicated to more serious purposes.

IRG

(Interrecord Gap). The space between blocks of data on a magnetic tape.

IRM

Information Resource Management. The management of information resources in a large business enterprise or other organization.

iron oxide

A chemical compound made of oxygen and iron; used to coat the surfaces of magnetic tapes and disks.

IRQ

Interrupt Request. Designation of a hardware interrupt in a PC. A PC has either 8 or 16 lines which accept interrupts from attached devices (such as a keyboard, SCSI card, scanner, sound card, mouse, etc.). Different devices competing for the same IRQ cause conflicts. The Plug and Play system was designed to simplify everything through resource arbitration: the operating system keeps track of which resources are allocated to which device.

irrational number

A real number which is not a ratio of two integers; for example, pi and the square root of two. An irrational number can be expressed as an infinite decimal in which not set of consecutive digits repeats itself infinitely.

IRTF

Internet Research Task Force. One of the task forces of the Internet Architecture Board; responsible for research and development of the Internet Protocol. The IRTF explores new technologies and makes recommendations to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

IS-IS

Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol. The OSI protocol which allows intermediate systems to exchange routing information.

ISA

Industry Standard Architecture. A PC expansion bus used for modems, video displays, speakers, and other peripherals. PCs with ISA commonly have some 8-bit and some 16-bit expansion slots.

ISA bus

Industry Standard Architecture bus. A PC expansion bus used for modems, video displays, speakers, and other peripherals. PCs with ISA commonly have some 8-bit and some 16-bit expansion slots.

ISA slot

Industry Standard Architecture slot. An expansion slot that can accommodate ISA-compatible expansion boards.

ISA slots

Industry Standard Architecture slots. Expansion slots that can accommodate ISA-compatible expansion boards.

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network. Digital telecommunications lines that can transmit both voice and digital network services up to 128K, and are much faster and more reliable than high-speed analog modems. ISDN lines are offered by many telephone companies.

ISDN adapter

A device that connects a computer to an ISDN channel. It is used instead of a modem, and is either an external unit or a plug-in adapter card. Some ISDN adapters have the ability to automatically switch between analog and digital modes.

ISDN terminal adapter

(TA). A device that connects a computer to an ISDN channel. It is used instead of a modem, and is either an external unit or a plug-in adapter card. Some terminal adapters have the ability to automatically switch between analog and digital modes.

ISO

International Organization for Standardization. A voluntary organization founded in 1946, comprised of the national standards organizations of many countries, and responsible for creating international standards in many areas, including computers and communications. ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the American member of ISO. ISO produced OSI (Open Systems Interconnection), a seven-layer model for network architecture.

ISO 10646

A character set using 16-bit character codes, also called Universal Character Set (UCS). ISO 10646 is a standard defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and allows 65,536 (or 256 x 256) characters instead of the 256 available in ASCII. If a printer has the UCS feature, it can use a variety of character arrays. The 8-bit character sets ASCII and ISO Latin 1 are subsets within ISO 10646.

ISO 9660

The physical format for CD-ROM discs (including size, tracking, contents of sectors, and so forth) is defined by the Red Book. The standard logical format for CD-ROMs (including the volume and file structure) is defined by ISO 9660: Information Processing – Volume and File Structure of CD-ROM for Information Exchange (1988), issued by the International Standards Organization. This format can be used by many different computers.

ISO Development Environment

(ISODE). (Pronounced “eye-so-dee-eee.”) Software for implementing upper layer services of OSI.

ISO IP

The OSI equivalent to the Internet Protocol (IP); the protocol for OSI Connectionless Network Service. Also called Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP).

ISOC

Internet Society. A non-profit, professional membership organization in Reston, Virginia, U.S.A., which is dedicated to educating people about the Internet, and encouraging computer networks to voluntarily join in creating a worldwide communications and information infrastructure. The ISOC supports the development of technical standards through the IAB, IETF and IRTF.

isochronous

Equal in time or duration; happening at regular intervals.

isochronous transmission

A way of transmitting data in which there is always a whole number of unit intervals between individual characters. Isochronous transmission is used for time-dependent data such as realtime voice and video.

ISODE

ISO Development Environment. (Pronounced “eye-so-dee-eee.”) Software for implementing upper layer services of OSI.

isometric

Having equality of measure.

isometric view

A way of drawing a three-dimensional object without the distortions created by perspective. In a drawing based on true perspective, parallel lines converge in a vanishing point; this is the way objects look to us in real life. An isometric drawing shows that parallel lines in actuality do not converge, and represents the object's real proportions and spatial relationships; the isometric view is most useful for technical drawings.

isotropic

Having properties that are the same when measured in any direction; for example, the velocity of light, transmission speeds, etc.

ISP

Internet Service Provider. A company that provides Internet accounts.

ISR

Interrupt Service Routine. A software routine that is activated to respond to an interrupt.

ISTO

Information Science and Technology Office. An agency formed by the DoD in 1986 as an expansion of Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO). See also CSTO.

ISV

Independent Software Vendor. A company that specializes in the development and sale of software.

IT

Information Technology. The technology of data processing/information management.

It’s All In The Subject

(IAITS) . IAITS is the only content in the body of an email where the message is contained in the subject line. For example, the subject of the message could be "I want my money back now!" The body of the email would say simply, IAITS.

italics

Type that is slanted to the right and sometimes more scripted than the text font it matches. Italics are used for emphasis. Typeset italics are the equivalent to underlining with a typewriter.

iteration

The process of running a series of instructions over and over until some condition is satisfied. Or, one repetition of the series.

iterative operation

The repetition of an operation with successive combinations of parameters, or the operation itself; automatic sequential operation.

ITR

Internet Talk Radio. Audio news files from the National Press Building, Washington, DC; available by FTP.

ITS

Invitation To Send. A character sequence sent to a teletypewriter terminal to see if it is ready to transmit data. The term originated at Western Union.

ITU

International Telecommunications Union, in Geneva, Switzerland. ITU is one of the organizations working on forming international standards for communication. ITU-T is the arm of ITU responsible for telecommunications standards.

ITU-T

International Telecommunications Union, in Geneva, Switzerland. ITU is one of the organizations working on forming international standards for communication. ITU-T is the arm of ITU responsible for telecommunications standards.

IV

Interactive video. Video in which the user can control which part of a program to view, or interact with certain parts of the program.

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