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There are 230 names in this directory beginning with the letter N.
N

An indefinite number; or, a variable that is assigned a value depending on the context.

NACK

See NAK.

NADF

North American Directory Forum. A group of organizations that offer public Directory Services in North America, according to the CCITT X.500 recommendations.

nag screen

A screen displayed in a shareware program that reminds the user to register and pay the fee. It usually appears when the program is opened or closed.

nagware

Shareware that displays a screen when the program is opened or closed that reminds the user to register and pay the fee.

NAK

Negative acknowledgement, or not acknowledged (ASCII character 21). The opposite of the ACK signal. It indicates a message was not received correctly, or that the terminal is not ready to send.

NAM

(Number Assignment Module). The component of a wireless phone that holds its telephone number and electronic serial number in memory.

name daemon

NameD or named. A UNIX process that converts hostnames to Internet addresses for TCP/IP.

name resolution

The process of mapping a name to its corresponding address. See DNS.

Name Server

A program or computer that translates one type of name into another. For example, a name server receives a query about a domain name and then sends back the IP address for that domain.

NameD

Name Daemon. A UNIX process that converts hostnames to Internet addresses for TCP/IP.

NAND

Not AND. A Boolean operation which is true unless both of its inputs are true. Another way of stating it: A Boolean operation which is true if any one of its inputs is false. A NAND B = NOT (A AND B) = (NOT A) OR (NOT B). This operation is used in logic gates within the computer.

NAND gate

A logic gate equivalent to an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. If both of its inputs are 1, its output is 0; otherwise its output is 1. NAND gates are important because all Boolean logic operations can be built out of them.

nano-

One billionth or 10^-9.

nanobot

A hypothetic, future technology robot that is microscopic in size; one possible way of using nanotechnology.

nanocomputer

A proposed future computer in which some of the logic elements are single molecules.

nanometer

One billionth of a meter. The wavelengths of light are measured in nanometers.

nanosecond

(ns). One billionth of a second (10^-9). The speed at which a computer performs logical operations is measured in nanoseconds.

nanotechnology

A hypothetical technology of the future in which objects can be designed and built on the atomic or molecular level.

NAP

Network Access Point. An interchange point for Internet traffic. A NAP acts as a backbone for the Internet. allowing ISPs to exchange data. As information travels from one network to another, it will likely pass though a NAP. A NAP can also be a site of Internet congestion.

Napier, John

A Scottish mathematician (1550-1617) who invented logarithms.

Napierian logarithm

(From John Napier) Natural logarithm.

Napster

Dot-com offering MP3 downloads, filesharing and online community resources. The Recording Industry Association of America, as well as recording artist Dr. Dre and the heavy metal group Metallica, sued Napster in early 2000 for promoting unlawful trade of copyrighted music. Judges have threatened to shut Napster down, and currently the future of the site is still in the hands of the court.

narrowband

1. A restricted frequency band, usually for a single user or used for a single purpose. 2. A range of frequencies contained within a broadband. 3. A communications channel that can carry data from 50 bps to 64 Kbps.

narrowcasting

Transmitting a radio or television program to a selected audience; for example, people who have paid for cable TV service.

NASA Stress Analysis

(NASTRAN). Software that is used to solve large stress analysis problems.

NASTRAN

NASA Stress Analysis. Software that is used to solve large stress analysis problems.

nastygram

An unpleasant electronic mail message, or a letterbomb.

National Bureau of Standards

(NBS). Now called National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

National Center for Supercomputing Appli

(NCSA). A research center at the University of Illinois, Champaign/Urbana, where the first version of Mosaic was created.

national characters

Characters that do not appear in English, such as accents, the umlaut, the circumflex, and various punctuation marks; or characters that vary from country to country, such as the dollar sign $, etc. Most of these characters are not included in the ASCII character set, but they are included in extended ASCII and ANSI character sets, and other formats.

National Human Genome Research Institute

This government institution was originally established in 1989 as the National Center for Human Genome Research. Its main function is to head up the research behind the governmental Genome Project. The institution can be found at http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/. See also .bsml.

national information infrastructure

(NII). The networks of the national information superhighway, as defined by the Clinton administration. President Clinton assigned a task force to study key issues of telecommunications.

National Information Standards Organizat

(NISO). A U.S. organization that sets standards for both traditional and new-technology information services.

National Institute of Standards and Tech

(NIST). A part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, formerly called the National Bureau of Standards, that defines standards for voice, data, and video transmissions, encryption, and other kinds of technology.

National Public Telecomputing Network

(NPTN). An organization based in Cleveland, Ohio, whose goal is to make computer networking services as freely available as public libraries. NPTN started the first Freenet in 1986.

National Research and Education Network

(NREN). A supercomputer network dedicated to High Performance Computing and Communications.

National Science Foundation

(NSF). A US government agency which promotes the advancement of science and funds scientific research. NSFNet is funded by NSF.

National Science Foundation Network

(NSFNet). A high-speed network funded by the National Science Foundation that formed the original backbone of the academic part of the Internet. NSFNet extends across the continental United States and outwards to Canada, Central and South America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim. Midlevel networks are attached to this backbone and university and local networks attach to those.

National Television Standards Committee

(NTSC). Or National Television Systems Committee. A committee of the Electronics Industries Association. NTSC is the standard television video signal format used in the U.S. and Japan. In Europe the formats most often used are PAL and SECAM.

native compiler

A compiler which produces machine code for the same computer it runs on, as opposed to a cross-compiler that produces machine code for a different computer.

native language

Machine code for a computer.

native mode

The normal operating mode of a computer, as opposed to emulation mode.

NATURAL

A fourth-generation language from Software AG.

natural language

The language of human beings; language which has evolved naturally rather than being constructed logically, as computer programming languages are. English, Spanish, French, Chinese, etc. are natural languages. Computer programs which are written more like natural languages are easier for humans to use.

natural language processing

(NLP). The understanding and generating of natural human language by a computer.

natural logarithm

Log to the base e. The logarithm of 10, with e as the base, is 2.30258.

natural number

A positive integer; an integer that is greater than or equal to zero.

navigate

To find one's way around on the World Wide Web by following hypertext links from document to document, and from computer to computer.

navigating

Finding one's way around on the Internet and World Wide Web.

Nbench

A benchmark program for Windows NT. Nbench tests the CPU speed: integer and floating operations/sec; L1 and L2 cache speeds: MB/sec; main memory speed: MB/sec; disk read and write speeds: MB/sec; symmetric multiprocessing systems and multi-tasking OS efficiency using up to 20 separate threads of execution.

NBS

National Bureau of Standards. Now called National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

NC

Network Computer. An Internet PC from Oracle, designed for Internet use only.

NCSA

1. National Center for Supercomputing Applications. A research center at the University of Illinois, Champaign/Urbana, where the first version of Mosaic was created. 2. National Computer Security Association.

NCSA HTTPd

NCSA Hypertext Transfer Protocol daemon. A World Wide Web server from National Center for Supercomputing Applications, which is compatible with HTTP/1.0. It can support forms, server side includes, and searches.

NE

Not equal to: <> or != .

near letter quality

(NLQ). Print quality almost as good as an electric typewriter; quality similar to a cloth-ribbon typewriter. The characters are legible but not sharp. Some dot matrix printers print NLQ.

negative acknowledgement

(NAK) ASCII character 21. The opposite of the ACK signal. It indicates a message was not received correctly, or that the terminal is not ready to send.

negative-channel metal oxide semiconduct

(NMOS). A semiconductor technology that uses negatively charged base material. NMOS circuits are used with logic and memory chips.

nerd

1. A creature in a Dr. Seuss children's book, If I Ran the Zoo. 2. A socially inept or unattractive person. 3. A person who is more interested in pursuing intellectual interests than in keeping up with trends in fashion. Since the Internet revolution, “nerd” has become a less pejorative term, and “computer nerd” is even used with admiration.

NES

Nintendo Entertainment System. Nintendo is a Japanese company that produces very popular arcade-like video games that require their own dedicated game equipment.

nesting

1. In text formatting, indenting a block of text from the left margin, usually to set off a quotation or extract. 2. In computer programming, placing a loop within a loop.

net

A network; for example, a network of computers connected to each other.

Net surfer

A person who explores the Internet for fun.

Net surfing

Traveling from site to site, exploring the Internet for fun.

net.deity

Someone who is famous and influential in Usenet circles.

net.god

On Usenet, an important and powerful personality.

net.goddess

A famous female personality on Usenet.

net.legend

On Usenet, an individual who is very well-known and has made a major contribution.

net.personality

A personality who is well-known on Usenet.

Net2Phone

A technology developed by IDT Corporation which makes it possible to place domestic and international calls from a personal computer to any telephone in the world. Any Internet user with a sound-equipped PC can initiate calls from a computer and transmit them over the Internet to a central telephone switch. The switch instantly and automatically relays the call to any telephone for full duplex voice communication, saving money on long distance calling.

netaddress

A directory retrieval service for Internet addresses, that uses intelligent agents to process requests. A single query can be used to search a set of remote directory services such as whois, Finger, and MCIMail.

NetBEUI

NetBIOS Extended User Interface. A network transport protocol that adds capabilities to NetBIOS. It is used by Microsoft and IBM network operating systems such as Windows NT and LAN Manager.

NetBIOS

Network Basic Input/Output System. An applications programming interface used in conjunction with other programs to transmit messages between applications running on PCs hooked to a local area network.

NetBIOS Extended User Interface

(NetBEUI). A network transport protocol that adds capabilities to NetBIOS. It is used by Microsoft and IBM network operating systems such as Windows NT and LAN Manager.

Netcom On-line Communication Services, I

A San Jose, California company which provides Internet access and has points of presence all over the United States.

netdead

An IRC expression for someone who is off the net (usually temporarily).

Netfind

A white pages style directory on the Internet that uses a person's name and general locality to find the email address and telephone number.

NetHack

A popular dungeon game available as freeware.

netiquette

The rules of etiquette on the Internet.

netizen

A citizen of the Internet community: a worldwide, unstructured, instantaneously linked, and organically egalitarian population.

netlag

A temporary loss of contact by a server, caused by network delays.

netnews

(nn). The program on which Usenet is run; a newsreader for Usenet messages.

NetPresenz

A program from Stairways Software for turning any Mac into a Web server.

Netrek

A Star Trek type space battle simulation game played on the Internet by up to sixteen players.

Netscape Communications Corporation

Formerly Mosaic Communications Corporation. The company that provides Netscape Navigator.

Netscape Communicator

A graphical browser from Netscape Communications Corporation, widely used for navigating the World Wide Web.

Netscape Navigator

A graphical browser from Netscape Communications Corporation, widely used for navigating the World Wide Web.

Netscape plugin

A third-party program that can be installed on a computer to enhance Netscape by adding multimedia or other capabilities. Shockwave is an example.

netter

A regular user of Usenet.

NetWare

From Novell, the most widely used software for local area networks, available for DOS, Macintosh, OS/2, VAX, and UNIX. Ethernet, Token Ring, and other configurations can be used with NetWare.

NetWare certification

Certification from Novell for competence in working with NetWare, including CNA (Certified NetWare Administrator), CNE (Certified NetWare Engineer), ECNE (Enterprise CNE), and CNI (Certified NetWare Instructor).

network

A group of interconnected computers, including the hardware and software used to connect them.

network accounting

Keeping a record of network use such as number of logons, length of time logged on, etc.

network adapter

An expansion board that makes it possible to connect a PC to a network. Network adapters are needed for Ethernet and Token Ring networks, but not for online services which use a modem to make the connection. The adapters in a network are connected to each other by cable.

Network Address Translation

A method that allows a multiple number of computers within a local network to connect to the Internet though one IP address. Network Address Translation can also act as a firewall by preventing outside computers from connecting with the local network, unless it is a connection initiated from within the local network. Network Address Translation has several variations on how it operates. Overall, it works by mapping an unregistered IP address within the local network, to a registered IP address. In addition to acting as a moderater between a local network and the Internet, the Network Address Translation can also prevent database servers from being overwhelmed if innundated with requests. When queries for the database server arrive from a client, the Network Address Translation can rewrite the headers of IP packages, and fowarded to the least busy database server. The reply packets are then returned to the client and it appears the information came from one database server and only one IP address.

network administration

Management of the software and hardware of a computer network, which includes maintaining files, overseeing security, setting up the network connections, etc.

network administrator

The person who is responsible for setting up and maintaining a network. Duties of the administrator include installing software, assigning passwords, making backups, and finding a way to restore the network when it goes down.

network architecture

The design of a network, including the hardware, software, method of connection, and protocols used.

Network Basic Input/Output System

(NetBIOS). An applications programming interface used in conjunction with other programs to transmit messages between applications running on PCs hooked to a local area network.

network closet

The place where the hardware for a network, other than cables, is installed.

Network Computer

(NC). An Internet PC from Oracle, designed for Internet use only.

Network extensible Window System

(NeWS). A windows and network system from SunSoft.

Network File System

(NFS). A protocol developed by Sun Microsystems that makes it possible for a computer to access files over a network – regardless of machine, operating system, or network architecture – as if the files were on the local disk.

Network Information Center

(NIC). An organization that provides information services to the users of a network.

Network Information Service

(NIS) (originally called Yellow Pages or yp). Sun Microsystems' client-server protocol for keeping track of user and host names on a network.

Network Interface Card

(NIC). An adapter board which is plugged into a computer so it can be connected to a network.

network latency

The delay on a network that occurs while a packet is being stored and forwarded.

network meltdown

An overload on a network.

Network News Transfer Protocol

(NNTP). Internet protocol for connecting to Usenet newsgroups and post messages.

network operating system

(NOS). An operating system which makes it possible for computers to be on a network, and manages the different aspects of the network. Some examples are Novell NetWare, VINES, Windows for Workgroups, AppleTalk, DECnet, and LANtastic.

Network Operations Center

(NOC). A center that monitors a network and communicates with other networks on the Internet, to improve services and solve problems.

Network Payment Protocol

(NPP). A non-proprietary standard governing how BIPS-enabled client software interfaces with bank payment processing systems. NPP messages are in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and begin with a Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) XML header. They also include transaction numbers, certificates, and other security information.

network server

A central computer that stores files for a network.

Network Solutions, Inc.

(NSI). A company that provides registration services for InterNIC. NSI is a subsidiary of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC).

Network Termination

(NT). A device that connects a customer's telephone to an ISDN line.

Network Time Protocol

(NTP) A protocol that can synchronize clocks on local computers with radio or atomic clocks on the Internet.

network to network interface

(NNI). An interface between networks.

network topology

The configuration of a network; the pattern in which the computers are interconnected. Common network topologies are the star, bus, and Token ring.

neural network

(NN). A network of many simple processors that imitates a biological neural network. Neural networks have some ability to “learn” from experience, and are used in applications such as speech recognition, robotics, medical diagnosis, signal processing, and weather forecasting. Also called artificial neural network.

New

A file menu option that opens a new file.

new media

The integration of computers, computer networking, and multimedia.

New York State Educational Research Netw

(NYSERNet). An Internet access provider and regional network in New York.

newbie

A newcomer; especially applied to new users of the Internet, Usenet, or computers.

newline

A code used to move the cursor down to the next line, also called line feed or end of line. It is not always the same character, but in many cases ASCII 10 (Control+J) is used.

NeWS

Network Extensible Window System. A windows and network system from SunSoft.

news

Top-level newsgroup category for a newsgroup with discussions related to network news.

news posting

An electronic mail message sent to a newsgroup.

news server

A computer that controls access to a newsgroup. A users must make a connection with the news server in order to post or read messages from the newsgroup.

newsfeed

A news source from which an ISP gets a newsgroup, by transfer over the Internet or other network.

newsgroup

A discussion group on the Internet which is focused on a particular topic. Discussion takes place by posting messages for everyone to read, having online conversations, and sending email messages to individuals or the group. There are thousands of newsgroups on different subjects.

newsgroups

Discussion groups on the Internet, each of which is focused on a particular topic. Discussion takes place by posting messages for everyone to read, having online conversations, and sending email messages to individuals or the group. There are thousands of newsgroups on different subjects. Newsgroup categories include rec (recreational), sci (hard science), soc (social issues), talk (talkshow-like discussions), news, k12 (k-12 education), biz (business), comp (computers), alt (alternative discussions), misc (miscellaneous), and many more. Names of newsgroups take the form comp.ai.edu (which means computers / artificial intelligence / education), biz.jobs.offered (business / jobs / offered), alt.alien.visitors (alternative / alien / visitors) rec.arts.cinema (recreational / arts / cinema). See also Usenet.

newsletter

A regular publication focused on a particular subject, such as the news of a special interest group. It may have announcements and events listings. It may be in print or sent via electronic mail.

NewsNet, Inc.

An online service based in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, with a database of newsletters.

newsreader

A program which makes it possible to read newsgroup articles. Some examples are nn, rn, GNUS, and tin.

Newton

A Personal Digital Assistant from Apple.

NewWave

A graphical user interface and object-oriented environment from Hewlett-Packard which supports compound documents, linking between documents, and intelligent agents.

NexGen

A Milpitas, California, company that makes Pentium microprocessors.

NEXOR

A worldwide company specializing in communications software.

NeXT

A company in Redwood City, California, founded by Steven Jobs, cofounder of Apple Computer. NeXT developed UNIX-based workstations and NEXTSTEP software.

NEXTSTEP

A windows system and software development environment from NeXT which can be used on NeXT, HP, Sun SPARC®, 486, and Pentium computers.

"SPARC® is a registered trademark of SPARC International, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries."


NFF

1. Notes Flat File. An interchange format for the Lotus Notes/Domino platform based on Extensible Markup Language (XML). 2. No Fault Found.

NFS

Network File System. A protocol developed by Sun Microsystems that makes it possible for a computer to access files over a network – regardless of machine, operating system, or network architecture – as if the files were on the local disk.

NFY

Notify (chat).

nibble

Half a byte (four bits). Also spelled as nybble.

NIC

1. Network Information Center. An organization that provides information services to the users of a network. 2. Network Interface Card. A network adapter.

nick

A nickname used on an IRC channel. Every user has one.

nickel cadmium battery

(NiCd). The oldest type of battery used in portable computers, which uses a nickel and cadmium plate with potassium hydroxide for the electrolyte. Nickel cadmium batteries last one or two hours before recharging. Because of a phenomenon called “memory effects”, the battery must be completely drained before recharging to get the maximum charge. Nickel cadmium batteries are also highly toxic. They have been mostly replaced in portable computers by nickel metal hydride batteries.

nickel metal hydride battery

(NiMH). A type of battery used in portable computers that lasts two or three hours and is less toxic than the older nickel cadmium batteries. It has less of a problem with memory effects, so does not have to be completely drained before recharging. The nickel metal hydride battery has nickel and metal hydride plates with potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte.

nickle

Five bits.

NickServ

A bot which regulates the use of nicks (nicknames) on IRC (Internet Relay Chat).

NII

National Information Infrastructure. The networks of the national information superhighway, as defined by the Clinton administration. President Clinton assigned a task force to study key issues of telecommunications.

NiMH

Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), the elements used in NiMH rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable NiMH battery packs do not contain heavy metals that might have toxic effects, they store up to 50 percent more power, and they offer longer life as the batteries do not suffer from memory effects after frequent recharging. NiMH perform better than NiCAD (nickel cadmium batteries) or other alkaline batteries.

Nintendo

A Japanese company that produces very popular arcade-like video games with their own game equipment. Nintendo now has video game consoles that can be hooked up to a modem, and created XBAND, a games network where many players can play together.

Nintendo Entertainment System

(NES). Nintendo is a Japanese company that produces very popular arcade-like video games that require their own dedicated game equipment.

NIP

Non-Impact Printer. A printer that prints without striking the paper; for example, a laser printer or an inkjet printer. Non-impact printers are quieter than impact printers, such as dot matrix or daisy wheel printers.

NIS

Network Information Service (originally called Yellow Pages or yp). Sun Microsystems' client-server protocol for keeping track of user and host names on a network.

NISO

National Information Standards Organization. A U.S. organization that sets standards for both traditional and new-technology information services.

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology. A part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, formerly called the National Bureau of Standards, that defines standards for voice, data, and video transmissions, encryption, and other kinds of technology.

nitinol wires

Nickel-titanium filaments that contract when electrically powered; they are used in robotics. These “muscle wires” can lift thousands of times their own weight; they were used on Sojourner, the robot that explored Mars.

NLP

1. Natural Language Processing. 2. Network Layer Protocol.

NLQ

Near Letter Quality. Print quality almost as good as an electric typewriter; quality similar to a cloth-ribbon typewriter. The characters are legible but not sharp. Some dot matrix printers print NLQ.

NMOS

Negative-channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor. A semiconductor technology that uses negatively charged base material. NMOS circuits are used with logic and memory chips.

NN

Neural Network. A network of many simple processors that imitates a biological neural network. Neural networks have some ability to “learn” from experience, and are used in applications such as speech recognition, robotics, medical diagnosis, signal processing, and weather forecasting. Also called artificial neural network.

nn

(netnews). The program on which Usenet is run; a newsreader for Usenet messages.

NNI

Network to Network Interface. An interface between networks.

NNTP

Network News Transfer Protocol. Internet protocol for connecting to Usenet newsgroups and post messages.

no-op

1. (no operation). A machine instruction that does nothing in itself, but holds a place for an instruction to be entered later. Also called do-nothing operation. 2. A person who has no effect, or an action that has no effect.

NOC

Network Operations Center. A center that monitors a network and communicates with other networks on the Internet, to improve services and solve problems.

Nodal Switching System

(NSS). The main nodes in the NSFnet backbone through which routing is done.

noise

An outside signal that interferes with a communications transmission. It can come from heavy machinery, power line spikes, nearby TVs or radios, etc.

non-impact printer

A printer that prints without striking the paper; for example, a laser printer or an inkjet printer. Non-impact printers are quieter than impact printers, such as dot matrix or daisy wheel printers.

non-interlaced display

A display technology in which every line of information is sent to the screen. The non-interlaced monitors do not flicker as the old-style interlaced displays, and so reduce eyestrain.

non-pre-emptive multitasking or non-pree

A multitasking environment in which a program running in the background can only receive processing time when the program in the foreground allows it; an application can give up control of the processor to another application only at certain points, such as when it is ready for input from the keyboard. This method of multitasking may allow one program to dominate the computer's resources so other programs have limited access to the CPU. It is also called cooperative multitasking. Contrast with pre-emptive multitasking.

non-volatile memory or nonvolatile memor

Memory that does not lose its content when the power is turned off. For example, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM.

non-volatile random access memory

(NVRAM). A kind of static random access memory which maintains its content either by having a battery continuously connected to it or by saving its contents to EEPROM before the power is turned off and reading it back in when the power is restored.

non-volatile storage or nonvolatile stor

Storage that retains its content when the power is shut off, such as floppy disks, hard disks, CD-ROM, and tapes.

nonillion

10^30 (U.S. and Canada); 10^54 (Europe).

nonlinear video

A linear video is viewed or edited in a linear sequence. CD-ROMs and LaserDiscs can display nonlinear video, in which the user can jump from frame to frame or clip to clip in any order.

nontrivial

Not easy, not simple; a word applied to programming problems.

NOR

Not OR. A Boolean function which is true if none of its inputs are true, and false if any one of its inputs is true; in other words, it is true if all inputs are false, and false if any input is true.

NOR gate

A Boolean logic gate used in computer arithmetic. The NOR gate has an output of 0 if either or both of its inputs is 1, and is equivalent to an OR gate followed by a NOT gate. An exclusive NOR has an output of 1 if both of its inputs are the same.

normal distribution

Gaussian distribution; the frequency distribution of many natural phenomena, which can be graphed as a bell-shaped curve.

North American Directory Forum

(NADF). A group of organizations that offer public Directory Services in North America, according to the CCITT X.500 recommendations.

Norton SI

Norton System Information. A Norton utility that measures CPU speed, disk speed, and overall computer performance.

Norton Utilities

A set of utilities programs from Symantec that includes file backup, file recovery, disk diagnosis and repair, optimization, and more. Norton Utilities is available for PC and Macintosh.

Norton, Peter

Developer of Norton Utilities.

NOS

Network Operating System. An operating system which makes it possible for computers to be on a network, and manages the different aspects of the network. Some examples are Novell NetWare, VINES, Windows for Workgroups, AppleTalk, DECnet, and LANtastic.

NOT

A Boolean operation that performs logical negation, effectively reversing the input, if and when its input is false. See also Boolean algebra, Boolean operators, AND, and OR.

NOT gate

A Boolean logic gate which has an output of 1 if the input is 0, and an output of 0 if the input is 1. It is called an inverter.

notebook

A personal computer which weighs around six pounds and is approximately the size of a looseleaf notebook, a little smaller than a laptop computer.

Notes Flat File

(NFF). An interchange format for the Lotus Notes/Domino platform based on Extensible Markup Language (XML).

Nova

A minicomputer introduced in 1969 by Data General, which made some advances in computer technology at the time.

NovaNET

An educational network created by the University of Illinois, which offers lesson materials in many subject areas, from elementary school level to postgraduate work.

Novell NetWare

From Novell, the most widely used software for local area networks, available for DOS, Macintosh, OS/2, VAX, and UNIX. Ethernet, Token Ring, and other configurations can be used with NetWare.

Novell, Inc.

A software company in Provo, Utah, known mainly for Novell NetWare and other networking products.

novelty typeface

An elaborate or dramatic type, such as a script typeface or shaded type. Novelty types are not very good for regular text but are good to use for headlines and special effects.

novemdecillion

10^60 (U.S. and Canada); 10^114 (Europe).

NPP

Network Payment Protocol. A non-proprietary standard governing how BIPS-enabled client software interfaces with bank payment processing systems. NPP messages are in Extensible Markup Language (XML) and begin with a Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) XML header. They also include transaction numbers, certificates, and other security information.

NPTN

National Public Telecomputing Network. An organization based in Cleveland, Ohio, whose goal is to make computer networking services as freely available as public libraries. NPTN started the first Freenet in 1986.

NREN

National Research and Education Network. A supercomputer network dedicated to High Performance Computing and Communications.

ns

Nanosecond. One billionth of a second (10^-9). The speed at which a computer performs logical operations is measured in nanoseconds.

NSF

National Science Foundation. A US government agency which promotes the advancement of science and funds scientific research. NSFNet is funded by NSF.

NSFNet

National Science Foundation Network. A high-speed network funded by the National Science Foundation that formed the original backbone of the academic part of the Internet. NSFNet extends across the continental United States and outwards to Canada, Central and South America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim. Midlevel networks are attached to this backbone and university and local networks attach to those.

NSI

Network Solutions, Inc. A company that provides registration services for InterNIC. NSI is a subsidiary of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC).

NSS

Nodal Switching System. The main nodes in the NSFnet backbone through which routing is done.

NT

1. Network Termination. A device that connects a customer's telephone to an ISDN line. 2. Windows NT.

NT File System

(NTFS). The file system used by Windows NT. It supports multiple file systems, has file recovery for hard disk crashes, uses the Unicode character set, and provides for file names up to 255 characters long.

NT server

Windows NT Server. The server version of Windows NT, which supports symmetric multiprocessing and online transaction processing for a large number of users.

NTF

No Trouble Found. (IBM computer maintenance abbreviation.)

NTFS

NT (New Technology) File System. The file system used by Windows NT. It supports multiple file systems, has file recovery for hard disk crashes, uses the Unicode character set, and provides for file names up to 255 characters long.

NTiogen

The Windows NT port of the popular UNIX benchmark IOgen, written by Symbios Logic. The program displays as output the number of processes doing input/output, the average response time, the number of I/O operations per second, and the number of kilobytes per second.

NTP

Network Time Protocol. A protocol that can synchronize clocks on local computers with radio or atomic clocks on the Internet.

NTS

Windows NT Server. The server version of Windows NT, which supports symmetric multiprocessing and online transaction processing for a large number of users.

NTSC

National Television Standards Committee. Or National Television Systems Committee. A committee of the Electronics Industries Association. NTSC is the standard television video signal format used in the U.S. and Japan. In Europe the formats most often used are PAL and SECAM.

nude

A term referring to computers that arrive from the factory without an operating system installed.

Nullsoft

The software company that produced the Winamp MP3 player, Shoutcast streaming software, and other freeware.

Num Lock

Number lock. A key that switches the function of the numeric keypad between numeric mode and the mode where the keys move the cursor.

number assignment module

(NAM). The component of a wireless phone that holds its telephone number and electronic serial number in memory.

number crunching

The performance by a computer of massive amounts of mathematical calculations.

number sign

ASCII character 35: # .

numeral row

The row of numeric keys on a keyboard.

numeric data

Data in the form of numbers; specifically quantities used for calculation.

numeric field

A data field for typing in numeric characters.

numeric keypad

A section of a computer keyboard, usually to the right of the typewriter keys, which looks like the keys on an adding machine or calculator. The numeric keypad can be used with the calculator desktop utility to perform mathematical operations. The numeric keypad also has arrow keys which can be used to move the cursor.

Numeris

The ISDN network of France Telecom.

NVRAM

Non-Volatile Random Access Memory. Static RAM which is preserved when the power is turned off, either by means of a battery connected to it, or by saving to EEPROM and reloading when the power is switched back on.

nybble

Half a byte (four bits). Also spelled as nibble.

NYSERNet

New York State Educational Research Network. An Internet access provider and regional network in New York.

NZ

Non Zero. A value that is not zero; greater or less than zero.

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