There are currently 500 names in this directory
A suffix indicating the ordering of bytes in a multi-byte number, as in big-endian, little-endian, or middle-endian.
MacroMedia Authorware Windows Library (filename extension).
An ending of an address for a cultural site on the Internet. Example: http://www.renaissance.arts.
Means: contents. It is a Windows file holding "table of contents" information.
Certificate (filename extension).
Folder (file name extension).
Global Index File. It is created by Windows once a help file is used for the first time. It serves as an index reference for the help system thereafter.
The extension used for an IDX (index file). Index files are not intended to be a readable file, but are used in conjunction with MBX (multi-index) files.
An ending of an address for an Internet site that offers information services. Example: http://www.travelers.info.
A top-level Internet domain name, short for .network.
Microsoft's framework for Web services and component software, introduced in 2000 and pronounced "dot-net."
(news run commands) A file that specifies the configuration for the UNIX rn newsreader.
1. Atari STAD bitmap image 2.Proxy AutoConfig. 3.SBStudio II package or song
Polynomial texture map file format.
Password List. Extension used by Microsoft for a database file which holds cached password information.
An ending of an address for an Internet site that is recreational. Example: http://www.games.rec.
ShockWave Flash. A file format (pronounced 'swiff') designed to deliver graphics and animation over the Internet.
shockwave file extension
shockwave file extension
Tab Window Manager run commands; configuration file (filename extension).
An ASCII version of the circled c used as a copyright symbol. Unfortunately, (c) is not legally valid. The c must be circled completely, or the word (copyright) must be spelled out in full.
An add-on electronic mail program that makes it possible to include animation and sound with email messages.
Fidonews, the weekly online newsletter of FidoNet.
A clown emoticon
ASCII character 126: ~ tilde. Used in some cases to represent a user's home directory. World Wide Web home pages often use the tilde in this form: www.some.com/~jones.
A high-speed local area network, also called Fast Ethernet. 100BaseT transmits at 100 megabits per second.
A standard computer keyboard with 101 keys including the alphanumeric keys, the number pad, F keys, and arrow keys.
A keyboard with 104 keys designed to accommodate the Windows 95 operating system.
An Ethernet standard in which a thin coaxial cable is used to connect network nodes. The cable is attached by means of BNC T-connectors to the network cards.
A version of Ethernet in which stations are attached by twisted pair cable, the traditional cables used for telephone lines. 10BaseT uses a star formation, and transmits at 10 megabits per second.
15-bit color makes it possible to display up to 32,768 colors. Digital video requires at least 15-bit color.
A monitor with 16-bit color can display 65,536 colors. This kind of monitor can produce high-quality images for desktop publishing and multimedia.
A computer whose central processing unit can process 16 bits of information at a time.
16-bit operating system
An operating system that can process 16 bits of data at once.
16-bit sound card
A sound card that takes 16-bit samples of a sound wave, measuring the wave on a scale of 65,536 increments. The 16-bit sound cards produce high-fidelity sound and music for multimedia.
Second-and-a-half generation wireless service. Most carriers will move to this wireless service before making the drastic upgrade to 3G. 2.5G changes wireless service to a packet-switched service that will dramatically increase transmission speeds.
A monitor with 24-bit color can display 16.8 million colors. This kind of monitor can be used to display high-quality photography and video for professional design work and digital photo retouching.
Twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. A term commonly used to describe the concept of Internet time and how it has affected services; i.e., is your help desk 24/7? Could be substituted for "always on."
Nickname for the 80286. The Intel microprocessor used with the IBM PC AT. Its register size is 16 bits, its bus size is 16 bits, and its clock speed is 8 MHz.
Second generation wireless service. Also known as Personal Communications Services (PCS), 2G arrived in 1990 and is the current wireless service available in North America. It is based on circuit-switched technology where each call requires its own cell channel, which makes transmission of data quite slow. 2G services include Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). GSM is used in Europe and Personal Digital Communications (PDC) is used in Japan.
See 32-bit computer, 32-bit color, 32-bit operating system, 32-bit addressing.
If a computer has 32-bit addressing, it means that each address in memory can have 32 numbers. Since each number could be a 1 or a 0, that means that 2^32 (four billion) addresses are available. The computer could theoretically address up to 4 gigabytes of memory; however, many computers with 32-bit addressing have far less than 4 gigabytes of memory.
A monitor with 24-bit color can display 16.8 million colors; 32-bit color does not add more colors, but gives the display additional masking and channeling abilities.
A computer whose central processing unit can process 32 bits of information at a time.
32-bit operating system
An operating system that can process 32 bits of data at once. For example, Windows 95 and OS/2 Warp are 32-bit operating systems.
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows CE and Windows NT, which are 32-bit operating systems.
Nickname for the 80386. A 32-bit microprocessor from Intel with a clock speed of 33 MHz. The 80386 is used in PCs.
Three-dimensional sound. Sound that seems to come from various directions, creating the effect of a three-dimensional space. 3D sound is used in virtual reality; this effect can be obtained with stereo headphones.
A manufacturer of add-on 3D cards for more powerful 3D graphics.
Third generation wireless service. The next generation of wireless services, 3G will bring wireless transmission speeds up to 2Mbps, which allow for high-quality wireless audio and video. For up-to-date information on the move to 3G wireless service visit
Third-generation language. A language like PASCAL or FORTRAN, which is at a higher level than assembly language, and easier to understand.
3W or W3
World Wide Web. A hypermedia-based system for browsing Internet sites. It is named the Web because it is made of many sites linked together; users can travel from one site to another by clicking on hyperlinks. Text, graphics, sound, and video can all be accessed with browsers like Mosaic, Netscape, or Internet Explorer. The Web can also be accessed with text-only browsers like Lynx.
A monitor with 4-bit color can display 16 colors. Four-bit color is okay for office use, but not good for displaying graphics.
The first microprocessor, released in 1971 by Intel, with a 4-bit register size and bus size, and a clock speed of 1 MHz.
Nickname for the 80486. A 32-bit microprocessor from Intel with a built-in coprocessor and a clock speed of 33 MHz.
Fourth-generation language. A language more advanced than third-generation languages, and closer to regular speech.
An electronic motor controller used for remote control of robots.
A telephone number assigned to an individual, rather than a location. A person with a 500 number can get calls, faxes, or data at any location.
A transmission channel that can transmit data at 56,000 bps.
Pentium. The Intel high-performance microprocessor introduced in 1993, also called P5 or 80586. It is about twice as fast as the 486.
An 8-bit microprocessor from MOS Technology, with a clock speed of 1 MHz. It was used in the Apple II.
An 8-bit microprocessor from MOS Technology, with a clock speed of 2 MHz, used in the Commodore VIC-20.
A microprocessor from Motorola with a 32-bit register size, a 16-bit bus, and a clock speed of 8 MHz, used in the original Macintosh computer.
A microprocessor from Motorola with a32-bit register size and a 32-bit bus, with a clock speed of 16 MHz, used in the Macintosh LC series.
A 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola with a clock speed of 40 MHz, used in the Macintosh IIfx.
A 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola with a clock speed of 40 MHz and a coprocessor.
A 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola with a clock speed of 66 MHz.
A series of microprocessors developed by Motorola, used in Macintosh computers. See 68000, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060.
The Pentium Pro. Successor to the Pentium microprocessor; also called P6 or 80686. The 686 has internal RISC architecture and a CISC-RISC translator. It is faster than the Pentium for 32-bit software but slower for 16-bit software.
Six Degrees of Freedom. A virtual reality term used to describe movement in three-dimensional space.
A monitor with 8-bit color can display 256 colors, which is fine for business and home use, but not good enough for producing high-quality graphics. For multimedia applications, 256 colors is the minimum needed.
A computer whose central processing unit can process 8 bits of information at a time.
8-bit sound card
A sound card that takes 8-bit samples of a sound wave, measuring the wave on a scale of 256 increments. These older sound cards have been mostly superseded by 16-bit sound cards, which have higher quality sound.
The set of IEEE standards for defining LAN protocols.
The Intel microprocessor used with the IBM PC AT. Its register size is 16 bits, its bus size is 16 bits, and its clock speed is 8 MHz.
A 32-bit microprocessor from Intel with a clock speed of 33 MHz. The 80386 is used in PCs.
A less expensive version of the Intel 80386, with a 16-bit bus.
A 32-bit microprocessor from Intel with a built-in coprocessor and a clock speed of 33 MHz.
A less expensive version of the 80486 Intel microprocessor, with no coprocessor.
An 8-bit microprocessor/microcontroller from Intel, with a clock speed of 1-12 MHz.
Pentium. The Intel high-performance microprocessor introduced in 1993, also called P5 or 586. It is about twice as fast as the 486.
The Pentium Pro. Successor to the Pentium microprocessor; also called P6 or 686. The 80686 has internal RISC architecture and a CISC-RISC translator. It is faster than the Pentium for 32-bit software but slower for 16-bit software.
An 8-bit microprocessor from Intel, with a clock speed of 2 MHz. It was the first general-purpose microprocessor.
An Intel microprocessor with a register size of 16 bits and a bus size of 16 bits, with a clock speed of 8 MHz.
The Intel microprocessor used for the original IBM PC. It had a register size of 16 bits, a bus size of 8 bits, and a clock speed of 4.77 MHz.
A series of 32-bit RISC microprocessors from Motorola, beginning with the 88100. These chips have been used in computers made by Data General and Encore.
A shareware program developed by Shane Brooks which can be used to separate Windows 98 from Internet Explorer for people who want to install only Windows 98.
1. Ampere; a charge of one coulomb passing a point in one second. 2. Abbreviation for Angstrom; one 10-billionth of a meter. (The Angstrom abbreviation is actually the Norwegian capital A for the Norwegian letter aa. It has a diacritical mark, a circle, attached to the tip of the A. We could not create it here.) See also , 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036, 212/869-7440. Since 1947, the Association for Computing Machinery has been advancing information technology throughout the world. ACM offers chapters and activities, special interest groups, conferences and events, journals, magazines and films. ACM has SIGs in programming languages, software engineering, graphics, computer-human interaction, and more. Publications include Computing Reviews and the ACM Guide to Computing Literature, available online, and cover such topics as object technology, participatory design, internetworking, software project management, hypermedia, and wireless computing. ACM also recognizes important contributors in the field of computing.
A series of personal computers from), the former Association of Data Processing Service Organizations was formed in the 1960s.
An application from Adaptiv Software which helps employers manage information about employees, shifts, and pay schedules, and build labor forecasts.
A technique where the compression algorithm used in the compression of data is chosen based on the characteristics of the data. Adaptive compression chooses the algorithm that offers optimal compression and the fastest transmission speed.
adaptive differential pulse code modulat
(ADPCM). A technique of translating analog sound into digital format that takes less computer memory than the regular pulse code modulation used by audio CDs. It is used on the Sony minidisk, and for CD-ROMs which have images and other data as well as sound. ADPCM takes rapid samples of sound and translates them into binary code, but instead of coding an absolute measurement at every sample point, it codes the difference between samples. ADPCM is used for long-distance telephone lines and outer-space communications because it eliminates errors in transmission.
Adaptive equalization enables two modems to adjust the speed and modulation method of data transfer automatically based on the quality of the phone connection, increasing speed in optimal conditions and slowing down in high-risk situations.
adaptive suspension vehicle
(ASV). An advanced walking robot that is 16 feet long, 10 feet high, and weighs 6,000 pounds. The ASV has six legs and can sprint at eight miles per hour and step over a four-foot wall.
The Apple Desktop Bus is a serial communications pathway built in to all pre-G4 Apple Macintosh computers (except the iMac and the iBook) that permits communication between low-speed input devices like the keyboard, mouse, trackball and graphics tablet and the computer. The ADB can connect up to 16 input devices simultaneously.
1. The identifying location of a device or an area of storage; for example, a memory register, disk sector, or network node. 2. To identify with an address.
Address Resolution Protocol
(ARP). The Internet protocol which maps IP (Internet Protocol) addresses to physical addresses on local area networks so that packets can be transmitted. It is defined in RFC 826. An ARP request is broadcast onto the network for a particular IP address, and the node with that address replies with its physical address.
Asynchronous Data Link Control. See asynchronous transmission.
Administration Management Domain or Administrative Management Domain. A public email message service that uses the X.400 protocol. ATTmail and MCImail are examples. The.
Adobe Type Align
A program from.
Using another transmission channel when the regular channel is busy.
(AC). An electric current that reverses its direction at regular intervals. See direct current.
1. Arithmetic & Logic Unit. The part of a computer's central processing unit which performs arithmetic operations on integers, and Boolean operations. Floating-point operations are handled by a separate floating-point unit. 2. (Association of Lisp Users). An international user group for the offers .
A word processing program developed by Samna Corporation for.
A way of getting files from. An organization that develops standards for many things, only some having to do with computers, such as properties of . One of the largest providers of online services. AOL offers
Asia and Oceania Workshop. One of three regional.
Apple Desktop Bus
(ADB). Port on the.
A family of 32-bit personal computers introduced byand are examples of application suites.
(AS/400). A family of, ARDIS started out as a joint venture between . A non-profit organization founded in 1997, ARIN handles the registration and dispensation of Internet Protocal addresses in North and South America. Its European and Asian counterparts are Researux IP Europeens (RIPE) and Asian Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC).
arithmetic logic unit
(ALU). The part of a computer's SCSI.that allows application programs to access SCSI hardware. See
Automatic Speech Recognition.
Assembly language. The language in between machine language and high-level programming languages. Each statement in assembly code statement is translated into one machine code instruction.
Association Control Service Element
(ACSE). OSI technology used to establish connections between applications.
Association for Computing Machinery
ACM, 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036, 212-869-7440.Since 1947, the Association for Computing Machinery has been advancing information technology throughout the world. ACM offers chapters and activities, special interest groups, conferences and events, journals, magazines and films. ACM has Special Interest Groups (SIGs) in programming languages, software engineering, graphics, computer-human interaction, and more. Publications include Computing Reviews and the ACM Guide to Computing Literature, available online, and cover such topics as object technology, participatory design, internetworking, software project management, hypermedia, and wireless computing. ACM also recognizes important contributors in the field of computing.
Association for Systems Management
(ASM). An international organization which holds conferences for specialists in information systems management.
Association Francaise des Utilisateurs d
(AFUU). The French Association of.
Advanced Technology Attachment. The specification for IDE interface.
A family of 16-bit and 32-bit microcomputers from Atari Computer, Sunnyvale, California, which became popular for games and for their MIDI interface. Some of the models are the Atari 520ST, 1040ST, Mega ST, STe, STacy, Mega STe, TT, and the Falcon. The Atari 2600, 5500 and 7800 were also popular.
ATtention Dial Tone. One of the AT commands used with Hayes modems.
1. Asynchronous Transfer Mode, a network technology that enables the transmission of data, voice, audio, video, and frame relay traffic in real time. 2. Automatic Teller Machine, a bank terminal that lets customers deposit, withdraw cash, and perform other transactions electronically. 3. Adobe Type Manager, a software program that manages PostScript fonts on a system. 4. At The Moment (chat).
Formed in 1991, this organization, which includes more than 750 companies, as well as research groups and government agencies, was founded in order to promote ATM technology, and set and accelerate standards.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Network Interface Card (NIC). ATM NIC transmits or receives ATM commands and requests.
Indivisible. This word is used in computing to describe an operation which must be carried to completion or not performed at all.
A processor that does not have Input/Output capability, and is attached to a processor that handles input and output.
Attached Resource Computer Network
1. A file linked to an e-mail message. Many mail programs use MIME encoding to attach files. 2. A device attached to a computer, along with any adapters used to attach it.
An attempt to violate computer security.
The SI prefix meaning 10^-18.
An open specification from Intel for a motherboard that is a further evolution of the Baby AT, giving more space for expansion slots and Input/Output. The motherboard is rotated 90 degrees in its chassis. The ATX supports multimedia and USB (Universal Serial Bus). In this design, the power supply blows air over the processor chip instead of pulling air through the chassis.
Relating to the range of frequencies within human hearing, generally between 15Hz and 20,000 Hz cycles per second.
An add-on adapter card that improves a computer's sound quality, and adds other sound capabilities, sometimes including MIDI. An audio adapter makes it possible to use speakers, a stereo, and a microphone to record and play sound.
Audio Interchange File Format
Audio Video Interleaved
Teleconferencing using sound for communication between participants.
A form of teleconferencing in which a voice connection and an electronic whiteboard are used to communicate ideas between participants.
Amiga User Group.
Acceptable Use Policy. A policy which limits the way a network may be used; for instance, some networks are restricted to noncommercial use.
The Australian Computer Emergency Response Team.
Verification of identity as a security measure. Passwords and digital signatures are forms of authentication.
Creating a document; especially used for World Wide Web documents.
A high-level application which helps non-programmers to create tutorials and courseware.
A program that helps in the creation of interactive courseware.
A collection of tools which can be used by non-programmers to create interactive applications.
A set of characters or password giving a user access to a remote or local computer network.
(AA). Some modems can be set up to accept telephone calls and automatically establish a connection; this ability is called auto answer.
The ability of some modems to dial the telephone number of another computer and make a connection.
An early compiler for the Manchester Mark I computer.
Abbreviation for AUTOmatic DIgital Network, the U.S. Defense Communication System's global communications network.
(Automatically Executing Batch File). A DOS batch file that is executed automatically when the computer is started, after CONFIG.SYS is run. AUTOEXEC.BAT sets up the DOS prompt, tells the system which directories to search for programs to run, loads the mouse driver, configures the serial ports, and initializes RAM-resident programs and utilities. AUTOEXEC.BAT can be custom configured by the user, and may be used to configure network connections, or to load a particular application program on startup. New software packages often make automatic changes to AUTOEXEC.BAT upon installation. Windows 95 will use AUTOEXEC.BAT if it is present, but does not usually need it.
A function of some programs that allows text to wrap around graphic images and spread from one page to the next, to fill the space as needed.
(Plural of automaton). Machines, robots, or systems which follow a preset sequence of instructions automatically.
The study and invention of automata.
automatic baud rate detection
(ABR). The process in which a receiving device examines the first character of an incoming message to determines its speed, code level, and stop bits. Having this automatic function makes it possible to receive data from different transmitting devices operating at different speeds without having to establish data rates in advance.
automatic number identification
(ANI). A service that identifies the telephone number of each incoming telephone call.
automatic repeat request.
(ARQ). A modem status signal indicated by a light on the modem; in cases of transmissions errors, the ARQ is a request to the sender to retransmit.
Automatic Teller Machine
(ATM). An automated banking terminal where customers can deposit and withdraw cash by means of a magnetic ATM card. See also ATM.
The automatically controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that replace human control.
A machine, robot, or abstract device which performs tasks by following automatically a predetermined sequence of instructions. Some automata mimic human behavior.
A term coined by IBM to describe their vision about the future direction of computing. Analogizing it to the autonomic functions that take place in a human's central nervous system, autonomic computing would be comprised of networks that are "self managing, self diagnostic, and transparent to the user." IBM sees it as a paradigm shift in thought, as computers would be defined less by computational speed, and more by the ability to access information.
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