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There are currently 85 names in this directory
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1GL: First Generation Programming Langua
First-generation programming language(1GL) is a machine-level programming language, which was written in 1s and 0s. There is no compiler or translator required and it can be understood and used by a CPU directly. The code using 1GL can run very fast and efficiently since it is directly executed by the CPU. However, machine language is somewhat more difficult to learn than higher generational programming languages, and it is far more difficult to edit if errors occur. Furthermore code portability is significantly reduced in the 1GL based code. First-generation programming language is mainly used now on very ancient computers. Machine level programming still finds a use in several areas of modern programming with the help of native-code compilers which creates machine language, usually from a higher-level language.
386BSD, also known as JOLIX, is a free operating system produced from the BSD derived UNIX operating systems for the Intel 80386. 386BSD was originally derived from the generally available parts of the "Berkeley Net Release/2". All rights with respect to 386BSD and JOLIX are now held exclusively by William Jolitz and Lynne Jolitz. 386BSD public releases ended in 1997 since code is now available from the many 386BSD-derived operating systems today such as such as Apple's Darwin, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris, etc. 386BSD innovations include role-based security, ring buffers, self-ordered configuration, intuitive setup and installation, peer-to-peer download, and modular kernel design. 386BSD is often confused with BSD/386 which was developed by BSDi, a Berkeley spinout, starting in 1991.
3D Computer Graphics
3D computer graphics are graphic arts that were created with the aid of digital computers and specialized 3D software. In general, the term may also refer to the process of creating such graphics, or the field of study of 3D computer graphic techniques and its related technology. 3D computer graphics are different from 2D computer graphics in which a three-dimensional representation of geometric data is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. Sometimes these images are later displayed in a pre-rendered form, and sometimes they are rendered in real-time.
3D Flash
3D Flash refers to three-dimensional (3D) animations using Macromedia/Adobe Flash, which is primarily a 2D flash creation tool. Additional tools are required to make 3D Flash products.
3D Studio Max
3D Studio Max, also known as 3ds Max, is a 3-dimensional vector graphics and animation program, developed by Autodesk Media & Entertainment (formerly known as Discreet and Kinetix). 3DS Max is one of the most widely-used 3D software packages today for several reasons, such as its long heritage on the Microsoft Windows platform, its powerful editing capabilities and its ubiquitous plugin architecture. While still supplying most of the needed tools out-of-the-box, there is a plethora of plugins available.
3GL: Third Generation Language
Third generation language(3GL) is a high level language designed to be easier for a human to understand, including things like named variables. Fortran, ALGOL and COBOL are early examples of this sort of language. Most "modern" languages (BASIC, C, C++) are third generation. Most 3GLs support structured programming.
4GL: Fourth-Generation Language
A fourth-generation programming language (4GL) is a programming language closer to human languages than typical high-level programming languages. Such languages arose after the introduction of modern, block-structured third-generation programming languages, which improved the process of software development. Most 4GLs are used to access databases. For example, a typical 4GL command is FIND ALL RECORDS WHERE COMPANY IS "JAVVIN".
5GL: Fifth-Generation Programming Langua
Fifth-generation programming language (5GL) is a programming language based around solving problems using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer. Most constraint-based and logic programming languages and some declarative languages are fifth-generation languages. Fifth-generation languages are used mainly in artificial intelligence research. Prolog, OPS5, and Mercury are the best known fifth-generation languages.
7-Zip is a file archiver predominantly for the Microsoft Windows operating system. It operates either as a command line program or with a graphical user interface. It also features integration with the Windows shell environment. 7-Zip is free software, developed by Igor Pavlov and distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). It is a competitor to the market-leading WinZip and WinRAR programs, both of which are closed source. It offers a special 64-bit version for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition. In the form of p7zip, 7-Zip has been ported for use on Unix-like systems such as Linux and FreeBSD.
AARON is a screensaver program written by artist Harold Cohen who created the original artistic images. AARON utilizes artificial intelligence to continuously create original paintings on PCs.
Abandonware refers to software that is no longer being sold or supported by its publisher. Most abandonware is still considered illegal to sell unless the publisher has re-released the software as freeware.
ABC: Another Bittorrent Client
Another Bittorrent Client (ABC) is a BitTorrent client based on BitTornado. It supports a queueing system with priority, global and local (per torrent) preference setting for downloading torrent (including upload and download rating limit), 3 upload options to do with completed file, and a system named Upload Rate Manager (URM) to force torrents out of queue if there isn't a pre-set amount of upload activity. There is also an extensive web interface in ABC, allowing for other applications to view and change torrents and preferences remotely.
ABEND: Abnormal End of Task
Abnormal end of task (ABEND) refers to software crashes or lossage. This term was derived from an error message on the IBM 360.
ABEND: Absent By Enforced Net Deprivatio
Absent By Enforced Net Deprivation (ABEND) refers to the sent-in-email subject lines,warning friends and others of forced loss of Internet access (due to moving, network outages, or illness).
ABNF: Augmented Backus–Naur Form
The augmented Backus–Naur form (ABNF), an extention to the Backus-Naur form (BNF), is a metasyntax used to express context-free grammars: that is, a formal way to describe formal languages which consist of its own syntax and derivation rules. The motive principle for this metalanguage is to describe a formal system of a language which is a protocol (bidirectional specification). It is documented in RFC 4234 and often serves as the definition language for IETF communication protocol.
Abstract Base Class
An abstract base class, a term used in the object oriented programming language, is meant to be used as the base class from which other classes are derived.
Abstract Type
In software engineering, an abstract type is a type in a nominative type system which is declared by the programmer, and which has the property that it contains no members which also are not members of some declared subtype. In many object-oriented programming languages, abstract types are known as abstract base classes, interfaces, traits, mixins, flavors, or roles. Note that these names refer to different language constructs which are (or may be) used to implement abstract types.
ACD Canvas
ACD Canvas is a graphics, publishing, and imaging product for personal computers. Canvas provides tools for creating and editing vector graphics and pixel-based images. It is used for illustration, page layout, animation, presentations, and publications in printed and Web formats.
ACDI: Asynchronous Communications Device
Asynchronous Communications Device Interface (ACDI) is a software device that permits asynchronous transmission, a way of transmitting data in which one character is sent at a time, and there may be uneven amounts of time between characters.A start bit and a stop bit notify the receiving computer when the transmission begins and ends.In synchronous transmission, strings of multiple characters are transmitted; this method is faster, but more expensive..
ACF NCP: Advanced Communication Function
Advanced Communication Function - Network Control Program (ACF NCP) is the program that controls network communications in the Systems Network Architecture (SNA) by IBM.
Acrobat, a document exchange software from Adobe Systems, provides a platform-independent means of creating, viewing, and printing documents. Acrobat can convert a DOS, Windows, UNIX or Macintosh documents into a Portable Document Format (PDF) which can be displayed on any computer with an Acrobat reader. The Acrobat reader can be downloaded free from the Adobe website.
ACT-R is a symbolic cognitive architecture, which has been widely used to model different aspects of human cognitive behavior. ACT-R has been used to study many different aspects of human performance including perception and attention, learning and memory, problem solving and decision making, language processing, intelligent agents, intelligent tutor systems, and Human-computer interaction. ACT-R can be compared in many aspects to SOAR, DUAL, EPIC, Psi, Copycat, and subsumption architectures.
Action Request System
Action Request System is a Client-server software application toolset developed by Remedy Corp. It is most commonly used as a tracking system. The AR System uses a third party database (Sybase, MS SQL, Oracle, etc...) for storing data in tables. In addition, the database stores a set of metatables known as the data dictionary. These metatables contain the source code which tell the applications how to interact with the users and the data. The AR System has an open API, a feature which allows users to create custom client tools and scripts that talk directly to the AR Server.
ActionScript is a scripting language used in Macromedia Flash. It is similar in syntax to JavaScript.
Active Cell
Active cell, also called the current cell, is the cell in a spreadsheet (such as Microsoft Excel) in which numbers or formulas can be entered. The active cell shows a thick border, and its name is at the top of the screen.
Active Content
Active Content is the program code embedded in the contents of a web page. When the page is accessed by a web browser, the embedded code is automatically downloaded and executed on the user's workstation. Active content is either interactive, such as Internet polls or opt-in features, or dynamic, such as animated GIFs, stock tickers, weather maps, JavaScript applications, embedded objects, streaming video and audio or ActiveX applications. Streaming video and audio rely on browser plug-ins, such as RealPlayer, to display active content.
ActiveMovie, a multimedia streaming technology developed by Microsoft, enables users to view multimedia content distributed over the Internet, an intranet, or CD-ROM. It is built into the Internet Explorer browser and supported by Windows operating systems.
ActiveX Programs
ActiveX programs, often written using Visual Basic, are used for active contents that are called and used by other programs and the operating system. For example, ActiveX is used with Microsoft Internet Explorer to make interactive Web pages that can perform functions, rather than static pages. With ActiveX, users can ask or answer questions, use push buttons, and interact in other ways with the Web page. ActiveX applications can have full access to your system and you must be very careful when allow your system to execute this kind of code, because it may conduct malicious activities.
Ad-Aware is a program from Lavasoft that detects and removes spyware on a user's computer. It also detects dialers, trojans, malware, data-mining, aggressive advertising, Parasites, Scumware, Browser hijackers, and tracking components. There is a freeware version called Ad-Aware Personal, as well as two commercial products—Ad-Aware Plus and Ad-Aware Professional. The free download includes Ad-Aware SE Personal Edition, skins, help manuals, RegHance and the latest definition file. The freeware version of Ad-Aware is compatible with Microsoft Windows 98/Me/NT/2000/XP/2003. Since January 6, 2006, Ad-Aware SE Personal is a part of the Google Pack.
Ada, Pascal-based programming language, is a structured, statically typed programming language. It is positioned to address much the same tasks as C or C++, but with the type-safety of a language like Java. Ada was designed to enable computers to control automatic equipment, but is now also used for other applications. Ada was named after Ada, Lady Lovelace.
ADABAS is a relational database system from Software AG, used for IBM mainframes, UNIX, VAX, and OS/2. As a high-performance database for large, mission-critical applications, ADABAS supports thousands of users in parallel while giving sub-second response times. Its key features include: Openness and interoperability with minimal resource usage; A single Web-based administration tool; Open SOA and SQL interfaces; Data management with no limits; Proven performance and reliability
Adaptiv Workforce
Adaptiv Workforce, an application from Adaptiv Software, helps employers manage information about employees, shifts, and pay schedules, and build labor forecasts.
Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE)
Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE), relational database management system product of Sybase Corporation, is a direct descendant of Sybase SQL Server.
Add-in, also known as Add-on, is a mini program that runs in combination with the main application in order to extend and improve the functionality of that application. In the Windows environment, add-ins are becoming increasingly commonly-used Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technologies.
Add-on, also known as Add-in, is a mini program that runs in combination with the main application in order to extend and improve the functionality of that application. For example, there are add-on report generation programs that are attached to popular database products such as dBASE, giving them additional report-generation and graphics capabilities.
AdeptXBBS was a BBS originally written explicitly for the OS/2 operating system. It was believed that the OS/2 operating system would propel this new BBS as a leader. While AdeptXBBS was completed with much of the functionality, features, and performance initially promised, the product never reached the popularity that the authors hoped and then faded away. In particular, as the world of Client/Server BBS systems took hold, the Internet came into wide use, and free operating systems such as Linux and FreeBSD could act as dialin/telnet servers gained popularity, most of BBS systems become obsolete.
ADF: Application Development Facility
Application Development Facility (ADF) is an application development package designed for IMS by IBM. Programmers define sets of “rules” and these are combined with a simple screen design to provide a rather basic application.
ADL: Architecture Description Language
An Architecture Description Language (ADL) is a computer language used to describe software and/or system architectures, because the software architecture must be communicated to software developers and other stakeholders concerned about the architectrue. There are several ADLs, such as Acme (developed by CMU), AADL (standardized by SAE), C2 (developed by UCI), Darwin (developed by Imperial College London), and Wright (developed by CMU).
Adobe Acrobat
Acrobat, a document exchange software from Adobe Systems, provides a platform-independent means of creating, viewing, and printing documents. Acrobat can convert a DOS, Windows, UNIX or Macintosh documents into a Portable Document Format (PDF) which can be displayed on any computer with an Acrobat reader. The Acrobat reader can be downloaded free from the Adobe website.
Adobe Audition
Adobe Audition, a software product of Adobe Systems based on Cool Editor, is a digital audio editor.
Adobe Illustrator
Adobe Illustrator, a software product of Adobe Systems, is a draw and design program for both Macintosh and Windows OS.
ADP: Automatic Data Processing
Automatic Data Processing (ADP) refers to computer aided storing, manipulating or processing of information in the data format, requiring minimal or no human interaction.
Adware, a form of spyware, collects information about the user or user activities in order to display advertisements in the Web browser. Adware or advertising-supported software includes advertisements or other marketing material automatically loaded by the software and displayed or played back after installation about the computer or its users activities. It is uploaded automatically when the user has not requested it. These applications often present banner ads in pop-up windows or through a bar that appears on a computer screen.
AE: Action Evolution
Action evolution (AE) is a technique used in the fields of artificial intelligence and reinforcement learning for discovering new solutions. It is built on the idea that creative ideas in the human mind develops through a process simular to the evolutionary process. --Mneser 19:00, 20 September 2005 (UTC)
AFC: Advanced Communication Function
Advanced communication function (ACF), also known as Advanced Communications Function/Network Control Program (ACF/NCP), often referred as NCP, is the primary SNA network control program. ACF/NCP resides in the communications controller and interfaces with the SNA access method in the host processor to control network communications. ACF/NCP can also communicate with multiple hosts using local channel or remote links (PU type 5 or PU type 4) thus enabling cross domain application communication. In a multiple mainframe SNA environment, any terminal or application can access any other application on any host using cross domain logon.
AFK Gaming
AFK Gaming is a technique used typically by MMORPG gamers, but also can be theoretically used by any other game genre. AFK gamers use software, either in the form of a bot or a game's built-in macro system, to continuously do a repetitive task for them, over and over. It also gives the player a significant competitive edge against other players.
After Dark
After Dark is a popular screen saver program from Berkeley Systems that allows users to create custom animations.
Agent Software
In the context of computer software, agent is a software program that performs a service, such as collecting device or user information, alerting the user of something that needs to be done; or monitoring incoming data and giving an alert when a message has arrived. An intelligent agent can make decisions and take actions about information it finds.
AI: Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence(AI) is a branch of computer science on how to endow computers with capabilities of human intelligence. AI can be seen as an attempt to model aspects of human thought on computers. It is also sometimes defined as trying to solve by computer any problem that a human can solve faster. Examples of AI include speech and pattern recognition.
AIGLX: Accelerated Indirect GLX
Accelerated Indirect GLX(AIGLX) is an open source project founded by the X.Org Foundation and the Fedora Core Linux community to allow accelerated indirect GLX rendering capabilities to and DRI drivers. This allows remote X clients to get fully hardware accelerated rendering over the GLX protocol. AIGLX is also a required component to offering good performance when using an OpenGL compositing window manager, such as Compiz or Metacity.
AIX: Advanced Interactive eXecutive
Advanced Interactive eXecutive(AIX), originally called as Advanced IBM Unix, is a proprietary operating system developed by IBM based on UNIX System. AIX has pioneered numerous network operating system enhancements, introducing new innovations later adopted by Unix-like operating systems.
Algol Object Code
In computer science, ALGOL Object Code was a simple and compact and stack-based instruction set architecture mainly used in teaching compiler construction.
Algorithm is a procedure and sequence of actions to accomplish some task. The concept of an algorithm is often illustrated by the example of a recipe, although many algorithms are much more complex; algorithms often have steps that repeat (iterate) or require decisions (such as logic or comparison). In most higher level programs, algorithms act in complex patterns, each using smaller and smaller sub-methods which are built up to the program as a whole. In most languages, they are isomorphic to functions or methods. Most algorithms can be directly implemented by computer programs; any other algorithms can at least in theory be simulated by computer programs.
Allegro Library
The Allegro library is a free video game software library, with functions for 2-dimensional imaging, basic audio, input, timers, and fixed-point and floating-point matrix arithmetic. The programs that use the library work on DOS, Microsoft Windows, BeOS, Mac OS X, and various UNIX systems with (or without) X Window System, abstracting their application programming interfaces into one portable interface.
Aloha, a software from Media Synergy, allows a user to add graphics, animation, and sound to e-mail messages.
Alpha Test
Alpha test is the first formal test of a newly developed hardware or software product by internal people. The key objectives of the alpha test are functionality confirmation and bug identification. When the first round of bugs has been fixed, the product goes into beta test with actual users and customers.
Alpha Version
Alpha version is an early version of a software or hardware product, which passed the Alpha test. Alpha version may not contain all of the features that are planned for the final release. Typically, software goes through two stages of testing before it is considered finished. The first stage, called alpha testing which is done by internal users. The second stage, called beta testing , generally involves a limited number of external users.
Alphanumeric refers to a group of printable characters that include the letters of the alphabet in both upper and lower case, the numerals plus a limited group of additional symbols and punctuation marks.
ALSA: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
Advanced Linux Sound Architecture(ALSA) is a Linux kernel component intended to replace the original Open Sound System for providing drivers for sound cards. Some of the goals of the ALSA project were to support automatic configuration of sound card hardware, and graceful handling of multiple sound devices in a system, goals which it has largely met. A couple of different frameworks such as JACK use ALSA to provide the ability to perform low latency professional grade audio editing and mixing.
ALTQ: ALTernate Queueing
ALTernate Queueing (ALTQ), a queueing framework for BSD UNIX, provides queueing disciplines and other QoS related components required to realize resource-sharing and Quality of Service. It is most commonly implemented on BSD-based routers. ALTQ is included in the base distribution of FreeBSD and is integrated into the pf packet filter of OpenBSD.
Aluria Software
Aluria Software is a company that sells spyware removal products such as WhenU.
AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. On top of a basic kernel called Exec, it includes an abstraction of the Amiga's unique hardware, a disk operating system called AmigaDOS, a windowing system called Intuition and a graphical user interface called Workbench.
AML: Astronomical Markup Language
Astronomical Markup Language (AML) is a standardized format for exchange of metadata related to astronomy. This language will enhance the ability of astronomers to retrieve scientific data, and make it possible for humans and intelligent agents to use the same information. Humans can view AML documents by means of a Java AML browser; intelligent agents can use an Extensible Markup Language (XML) parser.
Apache is the most popular web server on the Internet with more than 70% of the web sites on the Internet using Apache. The Apache HTTP Server is a project of the Apache Software Foundation and the software is free. Originally designed for Unix servers, Apache has been ported to Windows and other network operating systems (NOS). The name "Apache" was derived from the word "patchy" that the Apache developers used to describe early versions of their software. Apache provides a full range of Web server features, including CGI, SSL, and virtual domains. Apache also supports plug-in modules for extensibility.
Apache HTTP Server
Apache HTTP Server is an open source HTTP web server for Unix-like systems (BSD, Linux, and UNIX systems), Microsoft Windows, Novell Netware and other platforms.
Apache Incubator
Apache Incubator is the stepping stone for projects hoping to become fully fledged Apache Software Foundation projects. Code donations from external organisations and existing external projects wishing to move to Apache will enter through the Incubator.
Apache Project
The Apache Project is a collaborative software development effort aimed at creating a robust, commercial-grade, featureful, and freely-available source code implementation of an HTTP (Web) server. The project is jointly managed by a group of volunteers worldwide.
Apache Tomcat
Apache Tomcat, also called Tomcat, is a web container developed at the Apache Software Foundation. Tomcat implements the servlet and the JavaServer Pages (JSP) specifications from Sun Microsystems, providing an environment for Java code to run in cooperation with a web server. It adds tools for configuration and management but can also be configured by editing configuration files that are normally XML-formatted. Because Tomcat includes its own HTTP server internally, it is also considered a standalone web server.
API Documentation
Application Program Interface (API) documentation refers to documentate the Application programming interface (API) functions and operation details, so that other programmers can continue developing in the project, or develop other software that make use of the projects API, without having to study the code itself.
AppleScript is an object-oriented shell language and command-line interface for Macintosh, beginning with System 7 Pro.
AppleShare is the file server software developed by Apple Computer, Inc. for Mac OS users to share files among Macintosh computers on the same network.
Applet is a little application that can be a utility or other simple program. Applets are often written in Java language which are attached to HTML documents. An applet runs in the context of another progam, for example a web browser. The applet must run in a container, which is provided by a host program, or through a plugin, or a variety of other applications including mobile devices that support the applet programming model. Unlike a program, an applet cannot run independently. It provides display features often with interaction with human users, and is usually stateless and has restricted security privileges. An applet characteristically performs a very narrow function that has no independent use. Hence, it is an application -let (Applet).
Application in computer software refers to a complete and self-contained program that helps the user accomplish a specific task. Application programs should be distinguished from system programs such as operating systems, which control the computer and run those application programs.
Application Framework
In computer programming, an application framework refers to a set of libraries or classes that are used to implement the standard structure of an application for a specific operating system. By bundling a large amount of reusable code into a framework, much time is saved for the developer.
Application Macro
Application macro is a type of macro which allows the user to specify a series of (oft-repeated) actions as one new procedure. These application macros are generally recorded by carrying out the sequence once and letting the application "remember" the actions. More advanced users can often make use of a built-in macro programming language which has direct access to the features of the application.
Application Package
Application package includes the software programs and related documentation and instruction manuals of this particular software.
Application Program
In computer software, Application program, also known as Application software or simply Application, refers to a complete and self-contained software that helps the user accomplish a specific task. Application programs should be distinguished from system programs such as operating systems, which control the computer and run those application programs.
Application Programmer
Application programmer is a person with computer programming expertise to develop application programs.
Application Server
An application server is a server computer in a computer network dedicated to running certain software applications. The term also refers to the software installed on such a computer to facilitate the serving (running) of other applications. For example, an web application server delivers content to the Web, interprets site traffic and constructs pages based on a dynamic content repository.
Application Stack
Application stack, also known as application suite or application set, is a group of applications closely related in functionality. For example, a typical office application stack would include programs such as word processing, spreadsheet, database, etc. as well as a Web browser and e-mail and instant messaging programs.
Application Suite
Application suite, also known as application stack or application set, is a group of applications closely related in functionality. For example, a typical office application stack would include programs such as word processing, spreadsheet, database, etc. as well as a Web browser and e-mail and instant messaging programs.
APSE: Ada Programming Support Environmen
Ada Programming Support Environment(APSE) is a set of programs to support software development in the Ada programming language.
AR Mid-Tier: Action Request Mid-Tier
Action Request Mid-Tier (AR Mid-Tier) is a servlet application of Remedy's Action Request System, which allows users to access the AR Server with a standard web browser.
AR System Administrator
Action Request System (AR System) is a client-server software application toolset developed by Remedy Corp. It is most commonly used as a tracking system. The AR System uses a third party database (Sybase, MS SQL, Oracle, etc...) for storing data in tables. In addition, the database stores a set of metatables known as the data dictionary. These metatables contain the source code which tell the applications how to interact with the users and the data. The AR System has an open API, a feature which allows users to create custom client tools and scripts that talk directly to the AR Server.

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