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AC-DC Power Supplies: Economic Factors, Application Drivers, Architecture/Packaging Trends, Technology and Regulatory Developments – Tenth Edition

NEW YORK July 19, 2011

AC-DC Power Supplies: Economic Factors, Application Drivers, Architecture/Packaging Trends, Technology and Regulatory Developments – Tenth Edition

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The embedded ac-dc power supply market is facing an unprecedented number of opportunities that have not been typical for this industry in the past. Driven by new applications such as the Smart Grid and Solid-State Lighting, ac-dc power supplies are undergoing a significant shift in demand characteristics that will result in new product designs and sales opportunities. These include trends toward lower wattages and possible increased captive production. Smart grid technology is expected to change the design of all types of electronic equipment. Despite current progress, however, the successful deployment of the smart grid will be dependent on numerous technology and standards developments for power electronics. For the smart grid to have benefits, it must be able to reliably monitor loads and communicate to the downstream loads, and also be able to turn these loads on/off or up/down as appropriate. Although the power electronics used in the smart grid are still being defined, Darnell Group has identified several segments that are showing the greatest potential for power supply manufacturers: smart meters for monitoring residential electricity, water and gas; electric vehicle chargers; and "smart appliances" that rely on demand response to adjust energy usage.

the United States

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The increased use of the intermediate bus architecture (IBA), along with increased voltage rails, has led to a greater demand for single-output ac-dc power supplies. Front ends provide a single voltage (often 12V) to (for example) an intermediate bus converter that then feeds multiple point-of-load converters. Computers and communications applications utilize various distributed power architectures that also employ an ac-dc front end. The market for these power supplies is, therefore, growing as the impracticality of multiple-output power supplies becomes more apparent. In fact, single-output power supply systems are expected to dominate in the foreseeable future. Although multiple output power supplies are still used in a number of systems, and the 80 PLUS performance specification includes requirements for multi-output power supplies, applications are using an increasing number of voltage rails, reducing the use of multiple-output power supplies in many devices. Digital power management and control continue to make significant strides in ac-dc power supplies, in areas such as power factor correction and energy management systems. Since power conversion is an essential element of smart grid implementations, digital power will also be important to enabling the monitoring, communication and control of devices. Measuring energy consumption (and making it meaningful) is a critical part of the smart grid model, since you can’t manage what you can’t measure. Energy management systems are necessary for smart grids and building automation, but that does not mean customers will pay a premium for them. Ac-dc power supply companies will need to develop new products for these new technologies, but it is possible that existing methods simply need to be re-examined and re-designed. Standards have always played a role in ac-dc power supply design.

The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA), the Climate Savers Computing Initiative, the 80 Plus Program and CompactPCI Serial will be influential factors in the expansion of the embedded ac-dc power supply market. For example, fourth-generation ATCA platforms, with 40Gbit/s Ethernet switching, high-performance multi-core processors and enhanced cooling will enter production in 2011. Both silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) are expected to be important in future power supply designs. SiC-based power devices are said to exhibit superior properties such as very-low switching losses, fast switching behavior, improved reliability and high temperature operation capabilities. An advantage of these properties is that they help increase switching frequency, decrease the size of passive components and switches, and reduce the need for cooling, thus making the devices a good candidate for ac-dc power supplies. Gallium nitride technology also has the potential to support the next generation of semiconductor solutions, as current power converters rely on silicon, which has reached its limit on improving conversion efficiencies. Finally, the further development of direct-current (DC) powered installations and buildings presents one of the more visible long-term threats to the embedded ac-dc power supply industry. Until recently, the use of dc power was limited to facilities in the telecom industry; now the use of dc power is expanding and is expected to be used in additional areas such as commercial, industrial and residential applications. The addition of dc power delivery systems to homes, office building and commercial facilities offers the potential for significant improvements in energy delivery efficiency, reliability, power quality and cost of operation. These trends make it clear that embedded ac-dc power supplies are on the cusp of some potentially game-changing scenarios. Power supply makers have reason to be optimistic, since even the potential threats can point the way to alternative opportunities. This makes the long-term outlook for ac-dc power supplies very bright.

Topics Covered include:

Application Segments

Architecture and Technology Trends

Packaging Trends

Front-End Power Supplies

Advances in Technology, Components and Materials

Potential Technology Threats

Standards and Regulatory Framework for Development

Competitive Environment

Appendix: Beyond the Smart Grid: Personal Energy Systems

Introduction .4

Application Segments .7

Computers.7

Communications..13

Consumer18

Military/Aerospace .20

Industrial & Instrumentation22

Solid State Lighting.26

Medical .29

Smart Grid ..31

Architecture and Technology Trends ..35

Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) ..35

MicroTCA 38

CompactPCI Serial .40

Single vs. Multiple Output Power Supplies .42

Packaging Trends .44

Front End Power Supplies 48

Advances in Technology, Components and Materials ..51

Digital Power Management and Control ..51

Power Factor Correction..54

Advances in Smart Grid Technology .56

Material Development in Semiconductors ..58

Silicon Carbide (SiC)..58

Gallium Nitride (GaN).60

Potential Technology Threats 61

Advances in DC Technology and Facilities 61

DC Microgrids65

Standards and Regulatory Framework for Development ..67

80 Plus Program..67

Climate Savers Computing Initiative..69

Current Energy Efficiency Programs and Organizations .70

Internationally Recognized Safety Standards and Certifications .72

Competitive Environment ..73

Power Supply Companies. .73

Delta Electronics ..73

Emerson Network Power..74

Lineage Power ..75

Mean Well USA, Inc. ..76

Murata Power Solutions 77

Phihong.77

Power-One..78

Powerbox .79

Shindengen Electric Manufacturing Co. 79

SL Power Electronics .80

TDK-Lambda..81

XP Power .81

Appendix A: Beyond the Smart Grid: Personal Energy Systems ..83

List of Exhibits

Tables

Table 1 – Number of Servers Declared by Company..9

Table 2 – Typical Voltage Rails per System, by Application .43

Table 3 – 80 Plus Performance Specifications. .68

Table 4 – Climate Savers Computing Initiative Multi-output Power Supply

Units.. 69

Table 5 – Climate Savers Computing Initiative Single-output Power Supply

Units . 70

Figures

Figure 1 – Power-One PAL S400 2482 PoE Power Supply..17

Figure 2 – Power-over-Ethernet Endspan..17

Figure 3 – 12U 14-slot AdvancedTCA Shelf .36

Figure 4 – Digital Power Corp 1RU ATCA Power System 37

Figure 5 – Gresham Power PS 1138 MicroTCA Power Supply ..39

Figure 6 – Power One CompactPCI CPA250-4530 Power Supply 42

Figure 7 – Single Output AC-DC Power Supply (Murata) ..44

Figure 8 – Enclosed AC-DC Power Supply (TDK-Lambda) ..45

Figure 9 – DIN-Rail Mounted AC-DC Power Supply (Sunpower UK)46

Figure 10 – Open Frame AC-DC Power Supply (CUI Inc.) 47

Figure 11 – Rackmount AC-DC Power Supply (Martek) .48

Figure 12 – AC-DC Power Supply Front Ends in Parallel (XP Power) 49

Figure 13 – Comparison Redundant/Non-Redundant Power Supply Systems 50

Figure 14 – Five Levels of Digital Power.53

Figure 15 – Digital Power Supply (TDK-Lambda Americas) .54

Figure 16 – Proposed Smart Grid Network 57

Figure 17 – Examples of DC Power Distribution in a Commercial Facility 64

Figure 18 – EMerge Alliance Standard 1.0 64

Figure 19 – DC Microgrid Configuration..66

Figure 20 – From Grid to Personal Energy Systems.84

Companies & Organizations Mentioned

1 & 1 Internet

7×24 Exchange

ABB

Absopulse

ADtranz-Bombardier

Advanced Power Solutions

Akami

Alcatel

Alcatel-Lucent

Alfa Lavel

Amazon

AMD

Antec

Apple

Artesyn

ASHRAE

Astec

Astrodyne

AT&T

Ault

BEAR Power Supplies

Best Buy

Bias Power

BOC

Boxee

British Telecom

California Energy Commission (CEC)

Center for Power Electronics Systems (CPES)

Century Power

China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS)

China Standard Certification Center (CSC)

Cisco Systems

Climate Savers Computing Initiative

Condor

Consumer Electronics Association

Contech Research

Convenient Power

Corsair

Craftec

Cree

CUI Inc.

Danfoss North America

Dell

Delta Electronics

Digital Power Corp.

Ecos Consulting

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

EMerge Alliance

Emerson Electric

Emerson Network Power

Emerson Network Systems

Enermax

Epyon B.V.

Ericsson

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC)

European Nanoelectronics Initiative Advisory Council

European Power Supply Manufacturers Association (EPSMA)

European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

European Union

European Union’s Joint Research Centre (JRC)

Excelsys Technologies

Facebook

Fuji Electric

Fujitsu

Fulton

Furukawa Electric

Gateway

GE Appliances & Lighting

GE Energy

General Electric (GE)

German Federal Ministry of Education and Research

Google

Green Grid

green.ch

Gresham Power Electronics

Hewlett-Packard

Hitachi

HomePlug Powerline Alliance

Horizon Fuel Cell

Huawei

IBM

IBM Japan

IEEE

Imec

Infineon Technologies

Intel

Intel Labs

International Broadband Electric Communications (IBEC)

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

International Rectifier (IR)

ISO: International Organization for Standardization

ITU: International Telecommunication Union

iWatt

iWeb

Ixia

Johnson Controls

Juniper Networks

Kawasaki Heavy Industries

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Liebert

Lineage Power

Lineage Power Holdings, Inc

Lineage Power/General Electric Energy

Logitech

Lucent

Martek Power

Mean Well Enterprises Co., Ltd.

Microsoft

Mitsubishi Digital Electronics America

Moixa Energy

Motorola

Murata Power Solutions

National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

NEC

Nextek Power Systems

Nintendo

Nokia

NSN

NTT

OVH

Panasonic

PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG)

Peer 1

Peritus Power

Phihong

Philips

Power Sources Manufacturers Association (PSMA)

Powerbox

Powercast

Power-One

Powerstax

Premier Farnell

Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority

Rackspace

Recom

RJ45 Power

ROAL

Roku

Rolls Royce

Saab

Samsung Electronics

SANYO Electric

SBC Communications

Schneider Electric

Schroff

SeaMicro

Shindengen Electric Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

ShoreTel

Siemens

Silicon Valley Leadership Group

SL Industries, Inc.

SL Power Electronics

SoftLayer

Sony

STMicroelectronics

Sun Microsystems

Sun Power

Sunpower UK

TDK Corporation

TDK-Lambda

Texas Instruments

The Gores Group, LLC

The Planet

Thomson

Warner Cable

TiVo

Tokyo Electric Power

Traco

Transphorm Inc

Tridium Inc.

UK Department of Transport

Underwriters Laboratory (UL)

Universal Electric Corp

Uptime Institute

US Census Bureau

US Congress

US Department of Energy (DOE)

US Environmental Protection Agency

US Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

US Federal Reserve

US Green Building Council

US Navy

Validus DC Systems

Verizon

Verizon Wireless

Volvo

Wall Industries

Western Digital.

WiTricity

XP Power

ZTE

To order this report:

Furniture and Decoration Industry : AC-DC Power Supplies: Economic Factors, Application Drivers, Architecture/Packaging Trends, Technology and Regulatory Developments – Tenth Edition

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