LONDON January 31, 2011
– Indium: Global Industry Markets and Outlook (9th Edition)
The Indium market saw fundamentals begin to improve in early 2010 with average annual increase in indium demand projected to increase by about 16% from 2010 through 2013.
Indium is a critical raw material for a number of developing information technology markets, although the most important is that for flat panel displays. Thin transparent films of indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) conduct electricity. These ITO films are central to a number of display technologies, notably liquid crystal displays and plasma displays. Demand for these flat panel displays has remained particularly strong in the computer monitor and television markets.
Flat panel displays, in addition to their predominant use in increasingly larger televisions, both LCD and PDP, have also found further widespread use in items such as calculators, watches, household goods, mobile phones, and GPS navigation systems. Furthermore, technological innovations in computers, including notebooks, and mini-notes have expanded the demand for flat panel displays in the computer end-use sector. However,use of flat panel displays is not limited to personal consumer applications. Non-consumer use in professional displays, classified as Digital Signage Displays, continues to increase.
This growth in indium demand has prompted a significant increase in recycling since the early 2000s. By 2006, it was estimated that secondary production had surpassed primary production of indium. At least 22 companies worldwide were reported to be recycling indium in 2009/10. The Japanese electronics industry generates a considerable amount of indium scrap, principally in the form of spent ITO sputtering targets, which is then recovered. Japanese indium recycling capacity is estimated to be approximately 300tpy. Most of the recycled indium is reused in the form of ITO.
Whilst, the use of ITO in LCDs will remain the major market for indium and will continue to drive growth in indium demand. PVs for solar applications are a newer and perhaps faster growing application, but there remain significant questions over growth rates and also the technologies involved. Forecasts produced by AIM Specialty Materials in 2010 give a growth rate for global primary indium demand of over 15%py between 2009 and 2013. Consumption of indium in ITO applications is expected to grow at 17%py, while solar applications for indium could increase at nearly 40%py, albeit from a much smaller base level. Even if solar applications were to be removed from the forecasts due to the uncertainty surrounding them, demand for primary indium would still be forecast to grow at around 13%py.
US$330 December 2003 US$1,063 April 2005 China’s
Indium prices were rather volatile in the remainder of 2005 and into 2006, but from the end of 2006 onwards the general trend in prices was downwards as supply caught up with the growing demand for indium. Prices rallied in mid 2008 due to strong demand, but the decline in consumption due to the recession in 2009 knocked prices back to levels last seen in early 2004.
US$630 May 2010 US$550-570 US$505 and US$590 November 2010
Prices for indium correlate relatively closely with demand, particularly in recent years. In general, prices have tended to lead changes in demand as the market anticipates periods of tightness in supply, although prices have slightly lagged behind the most recent upturn in demand in 2010. This may be due to a period of destocking by consumers.
Note to editors
The report contains 142 pages, 51 tables and 8 figures. It provides a detailed review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.
SOURCE Roskill Information Services