There could be various reasons by which you can lose valuable data. They are:
User action: It refers to losing data due to deleting a file or application, which may be required later on.
Accidents: include multiple file deletion, accidental formatting of an external hard drive or pen drive, or deleting files over the network.
System or infrastructure problems: refer to losing data due to power outages, faulty hardware components, or software crashes.
External factors: It refers to losing data due to natural disasters such as floods, sabotage, fire, earthquake.
External interference: It includes losing data due to virus infections or your system being controlled by a hacker.
To prevent your system from getting affected owing to the aforementioned reasons, you should safeguard your data and organize it against data loss. Some of the recommended methods are:
Saving files and/or backups on a RAID array: A RAID array creates redundant copies of the data in multiple disks so that the failure of a single disk does not result in complete data loss. In addition, it also ensures better performance.
Journalizing: It includes creating a journal of all the write operations so that you could cross check the journal if the write operation fails.
Install Antivirus: They ensure that the system does not get corrupted by the viruses.
Installing Firewalls: It acts as a barrier between various networks. These networks can be of various trust levels. A firewall can control transfer of data between the networks.
User education: The user should be well informed on how to be safe from the instances of data losses.
If you have faced data loss even after performing these methods, then you should use a third-party data recovery software to perform data recovery. Such read-only data recovery tools perform full recovery of lost data.